• Daily APOD Report

    From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, January 01, 2020 00:19:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 1

    Betelgeuse Imagined
    Illustration Credit: ESO, L. Calcada

    Explanation: Why is Betelgeuse fading? No one knows. Betelgeuse, one of
    the brightest and most recognized stars in the night sky, is only half
    as bright as it used to be only five months ago. Such variability is
    likely just normal behavior for this famously variable supergiant, but
    the recent dimming has rekindled discussion on how long it may be
    before Betelgeuse does go supernova. Known for its red color,
    Betelgeuse is one of the few stars to be resolved by modern telescopes,
    although only barely. The featured artist's illustration imagines how
    Betelgeuse might look up close. Betelgeuse is thought to have a complex
    and tumultuous surface that frequently throws impressive flares. Were
    it to replace the Sun (not recommended), its surface would extend out
    near the orbit of Jupiter, while gas plumes would bubble out past
    Neptune. Since Betelgeuse is about 700 light years away, its eventual
    supernova will not endanger life on Earth even though its brightness
    may rival that of a full Moon. Astronomers -- both amateur and
    professional -- will surely continue to monitor Betelgeuse as this new
    decade unfolds.

    Free Presentation: APOD Editor to show best astronomy images of 2019 --
    and the decade -- in NYC on January 3
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, January 02, 2020 00:09:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 2

    The Fainting of Betelgeuse
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jimmy Westlake (Colorado Mountain College)

    Explanation: Begirt with many a blazing star, Orion the Hunter is one
    of the most recognizable constellations. In this night skyscape the
    Hunter's stars rise in the northern hemisphere's winter sky on December
    30, 2019, tangled in bare trees near Newnan, Georgia, USA. Red super
    giant star Betelgeuse stands out in yellowish hues at Orion's shoulder
    left of center, but it no longer so strongly rivals the blue supergiant
    star Rigel at the Hunter's foot. In fact, skygazers around planet Earth
    can see a strikingly fainter Betelgeuse now, its brightness fading by
    more than half in the final months of 2019. Betelgeuse has long been
    known to be a variable star, changing its brightness in multiple cycles
    with approximate short and long term periods of hundreds of days to
    many years. The star is now close to its faintest since photometric
    measurements in 1926/27, likely due in part to a near coincidence in
    the minimum of short and long term cycles. Betelgeuse is also
    recognized as a nearby red supergiant star that will end its life in a
    core collapse supernova explosion sometime in the next 1,000 years,
    though that cosmic cataclysm will take place a safe 700 light-years or
    so from our fair planet.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, January 04, 2020 01:27:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 4

    Aurora Slathers Up the Sky
    Image Credit: Jack Fischer, Expedition 52, NASA

    Explanation: Like salsa verde on your favorite burrito, a green aurora
    slathers up the sky in this 2017 June 25 snapshot from the
    International Space Station. About 400 kilometers (250 miles) above
    Earth, the orbiting station is itself within the upper realm of the
    auroral displays. Aurorae have the signature colors of excited
    molecules and atoms at the low densities found at extreme altitudes.
    Emission from atomic oxygen dominates this view. The tantalizing glow
    is green at lower altitudes, but rarer reddish bands extend above the
    space station's horizon. The orbital scene was captured while passing
    over a point south and east of Australia, with stars above the horizon
    at the right belonging to the constellation Canis Major, Orion's big
    dog. Sirius, alpha star of Canis Major, is the brightest star near the
    Earth's limb.

    Tomorrow's picture: sauce serene
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, January 05, 2020 01:03:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 5

    A Starry Night of Iceland
    Image Credit: Stephane Vetter (Nuits sacrees)

    Explanation: On some nights, the sky is the best show in town. On this
    night, the sky was not only the best show in town, but a composite
    image of the sky won an international competition for landscape
    astrophotography. The featured winning image was taken in 2011 over
    Jkulsrln, the largest glacial lake in Iceland. The photographer
    combined six exposures to capture not only two green auroral rings, but
    their reflections off the serene lake. Visible in the distant
    background sky is the band of our Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda
    galaxy. A powerful coronal mass ejection from the Sun caused auroras to
    be seen as far south as Wisconsin, USA. As the Sun progresses away from
    its current low in surface activity toward a solar maximum a few years
    away, many more spectacular images of aurora are expected.

    Tomorrow's picture: jupiter tumult
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, January 06, 2020 00:23:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 6

    Tumultuous Clouds of Jupiter
    Image Credit & License: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS; Processing: Kevin
    M. Gill

    Explanation: Some cloud patterns on Jupiter are quite complex. The
    featured tumultuous clouds were captured in May by NASA's robotic Juno
    spacecraft currently orbiting our Solar System's largest planet. The
    image was taken when Juno was only about 15,000 kilometers over
    Jupiter's cloud tops, so close that less than half of the giant planet
    is visible. The rough white clouds on the far right are high altitude
    clouds known as pop-up clouds. Juno's mission, now extended into 2021,
    is to study Jupiter in new ways. Among many other things, Juno has been
    measuring Jupiter's gravitational field, finding surprising evidence
    that Jupiter may be mostly a liquid.

    Tomorrow's picture: star flame
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, January 07, 2020 00:23:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 7

    IC 405: The Flaming Star Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Eric Coles and Mel Helm

    Explanation: Rippling dust and gas lanes give the Flaming Star Nebula
    its name. The orange and purple colors of the nebula are present in
    different regions and are created by different processes. The bright
    star AE Aurigae, visible toward the image left, is so hot it is blue,
    emitting light so energetic it knocks electrons away from surrounding
    gas. When a proton recaptures an electron, red light is frequently
    emitted (depicted here in orange). The purple region's color is a mix
    of this red light and blue light emitted by AE Aurigae but reflected to
    us by surrounding dust. The two regions are referred to as emission
    nebula and reflection nebula, respectively. Pictured here in the Hubble
    color palette, the Flaming Star Nebula, officially known as IC 405,
    lies about 1500 light years distant, spans about 5 light years, and is
    visible with a small telescope toward the constellation of the
    Charioteer (Auriga).

    Tomorrow's picture: galaxies in the river
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, January 08, 2020 00:31:46
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 8

    Galaxies in the River
    Image Credit & Copyright: Star Shadows Remote Observatory, PROMPT, CTIO

    Explanation: Large galaxies grow by eating small ones. Even our own
    galaxy engages in a sort of galactic cannibalism, absorbing small
    galaxies that are too close and are captured by the Milky Way's
    gravity. In fact, the practice is common in the universe and
    illustrated by this striking pair of interacting galaxies from the
    banks of the southern constellation Eridanus, The River. Located over
    50 million light years away, the large, distorted spiral NGC 1532 is
    seen locked in a gravitational struggle with dwarf galaxy NGC 1531
    (right of center), a struggle the smaller galaxy will eventually lose.
    Seen edge-on, spiral NGC 1532 spans about 100,000 light-years. Nicely
    detailed in this sharp image, the NGC 1532/1531 pair is thought to be
    similar to the well-studied system of face-on spiral and small
    companion known as M51.

    Tomorrow's picture: happy perihelion
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, January 09, 2020 00:35:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 9

    Perihelion to Aphelion
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ian Griffin (Otago Museum)

    Explanation: Perihelion for 2020, the point in Earth's elliptical orbit
    when it is closest to the Sun, occurred on January 5th. The distance
    from the Sun doesn't determine the seasons, though. Those are governed
    by the tilt of Earth's axis of rotation, so January is still winter in
    the north and summer in southern hemisphere. But it does mean that on
    January 5 the Sun was at its largest apparent size. This composite
    neatly compares two pictures of the Sun, both taken from planet Earth
    with the same telescope and camera. The left half was captured on the
    date of the 2020 perihelion. The right was recorded only a week before
    the July 4 date of the 2019 aphelion, the farthest point in Earth's
    orbit. Otherwise difficult to notice, the change in the Sun's apparent
    diameter between perihelion and aphelion amounts to a little over 3
    percent. The 2020 perihelion and the preceding 2019 aphelion correspond
    to the closest and farthest perihelion and aphelion of the 21st
    century.

    Tomorrow's picture: clouds like pearls
    __________________________________________________________________

    > Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, January 10, 2020 00:58:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 10

    Nacreous Clouds over Sweden
    Image Credit & Copyright: P-M Hedén (Clear Skies, TWAN)

    Explanation: Vivid and lustrous, wafting iridescent waves of color
    filled this mountain and skyscape near Tanndalen, Sweden on January 3.
    Known as nacreous clouds or mother-of-pearl clouds, they are rare. This
    northern winter season they have been making unforgettable appearances
    at high latitudes, though. A type of polar stratospheric cloud, they
    form when unusually cold temperatures in the usually cloudless lower
    stratosphere form ice crystals. Still sunlit at altitudes of around 15
    to 25 kilometers the clouds can diffract sunlight after sunset and
    before the dawn.

    Tomorrow's picture: and beyond
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, January 11, 2020 00:03:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 11

    NGC 602 and Beyond
    Image Credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/Univ.Potsdam/L.Oskinova et al;
    Optical: Hubble: NASA/STScI; Infrared: Spitzer: NASA/JPL-Caltech

    Explanation: Near the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a
    satellite galaxy some 200 thousand light-years distant, lies 5 million
    year young star cluster NGC 602. Surrounded by natal gas and dust, NGC
    602 is featured in this stunning Hubble image of the region, augmented
    by images in the X-ray by Chandra, and in the infrared by Spitzer.
    Fantastic ridges and swept back shapes strongly suggest that energetic
    radiation and shock waves from NGC 602's massive young stars have
    eroded the dusty material and triggered a progression of star formation
    moving away from the cluster's center. At the estimated distance of the
    Small Magellanic Cloud, the Picture spans about 200 light-years, but a
    tantalizing assortment of background galaxies are also visible in this
    sharp multi-colored view. The background galaxies are hundreds of
    millions of light-years or more beyond NGC 602.

    Tomorrow's picture: blue corona
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, January 12, 2020 00:55:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 12

    Stars and Dust in Corona Australis
    Image Credit & Copyright: CHART32 Team, Processing - Johannes Schedler

    Explanation: Cosmic dust clouds and young, energetic stars inhabit this
    telescopic vista, less than 500 light-years away toward the northern
    boundary of Corona Australis, the Southern Crown. The dust clouds
    effectively block light from more distant background stars in the Milky
    Way. But the striking complex of reflection nebulae cataloged as NGC
    6726, 6727, and IC 4812 produce a characteristic blue color as light
    from the region's young hot stars is reflected by the cosmic dust. The
    dust also obscures from view stars still in the process of formation.
    At the left, smaller yellowish nebula NGC 6729 bends around young
    variable star R Coronae Australis. Just below it, glowing arcs and
    loops shocked by outflows from embedded newborn stars are identified as
    Herbig-Haro objects. On the sky this field of view spans about 1
    degree. That corresponds to almost 9 light-years at the estimated
    distance of the nearby star forming region.

    Video: Best of APOD 2019 for the Night Sky Network
    Tomorrow's picture: desert eclipse
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, January 13, 2020 00:17:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 13

    A Desert Eclipse
    Image Credit & Copyright: Maxime Daviron

    Explanation: A good place to see a ring-of-fire eclipse, it seemed,
    would be from a desert. In a desert, there should be relatively few
    obscuring clouds and trees. Therefore late last December a group of
    photographers traveled to the United Arab Emirates and Rub al-Khali,
    the largest continuous sand desert in world, to capture clear images of
    an unusual eclipse that would be passing over. A ring-of-fire eclipse
    is an annular eclipse that occurs when the Moon is far enough away on
    its elliptical orbit around the Earth so that it appears too small,
    angularly, to cover the entire Sun. At the maximum of an annular
    eclipse, the edges of the Sun can be seen all around the edges of the
    Moon, so that the Moon appears to be a dark spot that covers most --
    but not all -- of the Sun. This particular eclipse, they knew, would
    peak soon after sunrise. After seeking out such a dry and barren place,
    it turned out that some of the most interesting eclipse images actually
    included a tree in the foreground, because, in addition to the sand
    dunes, the tree gave the surreal background a contrasting sense of
    normalcy, scale, and texture.

    Explore the Universe: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: venusian volcano
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, January 14, 2020 00:28:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 14

    Evidence of an Active Volcano on Venus
    Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, ESA, Venus Express: VIRTIS, USRA, LPI

    Explanation: Are volcanoes still active on Venus? More volcanoes are
    known on Venus than Earth, but when Venusian volcanoes last erupted is
    not directly known. Evidence bolstering very recent volcanism on Venus
    has recently been uncovered, though, right here on Earth. Lab results
    showed that images of surface lava would become dim in the infrared in
    only months in the dense Venusian atmosphere, a dimming not seen in
    ESA's Venus Express images. Venus Express entered orbit around Venus in
    2006 and remained in contact with Earth until 2014. Therefore, the
    infrared glow (shown in false-color red) recorded by Venus Express for
    Idunn Mons and featured here on a NASA Magellan image indicates that
    this volcano erupted very recently -- and is still active today.
    Understanding the volcanics of Venus might lead to insight about the
    volcanics on Earth, as well as elsewhere in our Solar System.

    New: APOD now available in Turkish from Turkey
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, January 15, 2020 00:19:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 15

    Iridescent Clouds over Sweden
    Image Credit & Copyright: Goran Strand

    Explanation: Why would these clouds multi-colored? A relatively rare
    phenomenon in clouds known as iridescence can bring up unusual colors
    vividly or even a whole spectrum of colors simultaneously. These polar
    stratospheric clouds clouds, also known as nacreous and mother-of-pearl
    clouds, are formed of small water droplets of nearly uniform size. When
    the Sun is in the right position and, typically, hidden from direct
    view, these thin clouds can be seen significantly diffracting sunlight
    in a nearly coherent manner, with different colors being deflected by
    different amounts. Therefore, different colors will come to the
    observer from slightly different directions. Many clouds start with
    uniform regions that could show iridescence but quickly become too
    thick, too mixed, or too angularly far from the Sun to exhibit striking
    colors. The featured image and an accompanying video were taken late
    last year over Ostersund, Sweden.

    Follow APOD in English on: Instagram, Facebook, Reddit, or Twitter
    Tomorrow's picture: a stellar galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, January 16, 2020 00:13:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 16

    NGC 247 and Friends
    Image Credit & Copyright: Acquisition - Eric Benson, Processing -
    Dietmar Hager

    Explanation: About 70,000 light-years across, NGC 247 is a spiral
    galaxy smaller than our Milky Way. Measured to be only 11 million
    light-years distant it is nearby though. Tilted nearly edge-on as seen
    from our perspective, it dominates this telescopic field of view toward
    the southern constellation Cetus. The pronounced void on one side of
    the galaxy's disk recalls for some its popular name, the Needle's Eye
    galaxy. Many background galaxies are visible in this sharp galaxy
    portrait, including the remarkable string of four galaxies just below
    and left of NGC 247 known as Burbidge's Chain. Burbidge's Chain
    galaxies are about 300 million light-years distant. NGC 247 itself is
    part of the Sculptor Group of galaxies along with the shiny spiral NGC
    253.

    Tomorrow's picture: in stereo
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, January 17, 2020 01:20:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 17

    Apollo 17: A Stereo View from Lunar Orbit
    Gene Cernan, Apollo 17, NASA; Anaglyph by Patrick Vantuyne

    Explanation: Get out your red/blue glasses and check out this awesome
    stereo view of another world. The scene was recorded by Apollo 17
    mission commander Eugene Cernan on December 11, 1972, one orbit before
    descending to land on the Moon. The stereo anaglyph was assembled from
    two photographs (AS17-147-22465, AS17-147-22466) captured from his
    vantage point on board the Lunar Module Challenger as he and Dr.
    Harrison Schmitt flew over Apollo 17's landing site in the
    Taurus-Littrow Valley. The broad, sunlit face of the mountain dubbed
    South Massif rises near the center of the frame, above the dark floor
    of Taurus-Littrow to its left. Beyond the mountains, toward the lunar
    limb, lies the Moon's Mare Serenitatis. Piloted by Ron Evans, the
    Command Module America is visible in orbit in the foreground against
    the South Massif's peak.

    Tomorrow's picture: and beyond
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, January 18, 2020 03:07:46
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 18

    An Almost Eclipse of the Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gyorgy Soponyai

    Explanation: This composited series of images follows the Moon on
    January 10, the first Full Moon of 2020, in Hungarian skies. The lunar
    disk is in mid-eclipse at the center of the sequence though. It looks
    only slightly darker there as it passes through the light outer shadow
    or penumbra of planet Earth. In fact during this penumbral lunar
    eclipse the Moon almost crossed into the northern edge of Earth's dark
    central shadow or umbra. Subtle and hard to see, this penumbral lunar
    eclipse was the first of four lunar eclipses in 2020, all of which will
    be penumbral lunar eclipses.

    Tomorrow's picture: cosmic crustacean
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, January 20, 2020 00:15:46
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 20

    Quadrantid Meteors through Orion
    Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horálek

    Explanation: Why are these meteor trails nearly parallel? Because they
    were all shed by the same space rock and so can be traced back to the
    same direction on the sky: the radiant of the Quadrantid Meteor Shower.
    This direction used to be toward the old constellation of Quadrans
    Muralis, hence the name Quadrantids, but when the International
    Astronomical Union formulated its list of modern constellations in
    1922, this constellation did not make the list. Even though the meteors
    are now considered to originate from the recognized constellation of
    Bootes, the old name stuck. Regardless of the designation, every
    January the Earth moves through a dust stream and bits of this dust
    glow as meteors as they heat up in Earth's atmosphere. The featured
    image composite was taken on January 4 with a picturesque snowy
    Slovakian landscape in the foreground, and a deep-exposure sky
    prominently featuring the constellation Orion in the background. The
    red star Betelgeuse appears unusually dim -- its fading over the past
    few months is being tracked by astronomers.

    Teachers: APOD in the Classroom
    Tomorrow's picture: sun sounds
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, January 22, 2020 00:10:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 22

    The Hyades Star Cluster
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jose Mtanous

    Explanation: It is the closest cluster of stars to the Sun. The Hyades
    open cluster is bright enough to have been remarked on even thousands
    of years ago, yet is not as bright or compact as the nearby Pleiades
    (M45) star cluster. Pictured here is a particularly deep image of the
    Hyades which has brings out vivid star colors and faint coincidental
    nebulas. The brightest star in the field is yellow Aldebaran, the eye
    of the bull toward the constellation of Taurus. Aldebaran, at 65
    light-years away, is now known to be unrelated to the Hyades cluster,
    which lies about 150 light-years away. The central Hyades stars are
    spread out over about 15 light-years. Formed about 625 million years
    ago, the Hyades likely shares a common origin with the Beehive cluster
    (M44), a naked-eye open star cluster toward the constellation of
    Cancer, based on M44's motion through space and remarkably similar age.

    Tomorrow's picture: roaming the halo
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, January 23, 2020 00:58:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 23

    Globular Star Cluster NGC 6752
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jose Joaquin Perez

    Explanation: Some 13,000 light-years away toward the southern
    constellation Pavo, the globular star cluster NGC 6752 roams the halo
    of our Milky Way galaxy. Over 10 billion years old, NGC 6752 follows
    clusters Omega Centauri and 47 Tucanae as the third brightest globular
    in planet Earth's night sky. It holds over 100 thousand stars in a
    sphere about 100 light-years in diameter. Telescopic explorations of
    the NGC 6752 have found that a remarkable fraction of the stars near
    the cluster's core, are multiple star systems. They also reveal the
    presence of blue straggle stars, stars which appear to be too young and
    massive to exist in a cluster whose stars are all expected to be at
    least twice as old as the Sun. The blue stragglers are thought to be
    formed by star mergers and collisions in the dense stellar environment
    at the cluster's core. This sharp color composite also features the
    cluster's ancient red giant stars in yellowish hues. (Note: The bright,
    spiky blue star at 11 o'clock from the cluster center is a foreground
    star along the line-of-sight to NGC 6752)

    Tomorrow's picture: shadow play
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, January 24, 2020 00:55:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 24

    Into the Shadow
    Image Credit & Copyright: Laszlo Francsics

    Explanation: On January 21, 2019 moonwatchers on planet Earth saw a
    total lunar eclipse. In 35 frames this composite image follows the Moon
    that night as it crossed into Earth's dark umbral shadow. Taken 3
    minutes apart, they almost melt together in a continuous screen that
    captures the dark colors within the shadow itself and the northern
    curve of the shadow's edge. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere into
    the shadow causes the lunar surface to appear reddened during totality
    (left), but close to the umbra's edge, the limb of the eclipsed Moon
    shows a remarkable blue hue. The blue eclipsed moonlight originates as
    rays of sunlight pass through layers high in Earth's upper
    stratosphere, colored by ozone that scatters red light and transmits
    blue. The Moon's next crossing into Earth's umbral shadow, will be on
    May 26, 2021.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, January 25, 2020 01:55:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 25

    Rubin's Galaxy
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, B. Holwerda (University of Louisville)

    Explanation: In this Hubble Space Telescope image the bright, spiky
    stars lie in the foreground toward the heroic northern constellation
    Perseus and well within our own Milky Way galaxy. In sharp focus beyond
    is UGC 2885, a giant spiral galaxy about 232 million light-years
    distant. Some 800,000 light-years across compared to the Milky Way's
    diameter of 100,000 light-years or so, it has around 1 trillion stars.
    That's about 10 times as many stars as the Milky Way. Part of a current
    investigation to understand how galaxies can grow to such enormous
    sizes, UGC 2885 was also part of astronomer Vera Rubin's pioneering
    study of the rotation of spiral galaxies. Her work was the first to
    convincingly demonstrate the dominating presence of dark matter in our
    universe.

    Tomorrow's picture: Rubin's ridge
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, January 26, 2020 00:57:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 26

    Hills, Ridges, and Tracks on Mars
    Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, MSSS; Processing & Copyright: Thomas
    Appere

    Explanation: Sometimes, even rovers on Mars stop to admire the scenery.
    Just late last November the Curiosity rover on Mars paused to
    photograph its impressive surroundings. One thing to admire, straight
    ahead, was Central Butte, an unusual flat hill studied by Curiosity
    just a few days before this image was taken. To its right was distant
    Mount Sharp, the five-kilometer central peak of entire Gale crater, the
    interior of which Curiosity is exploring. Mount Sharp, covered in
    sulfates, appears quite bright in this colorized, red-filtered image.
    To the far left, shrouded in a very dark shadow, was the south slope of
    Vera Rubin ridge, an elevation explored previously by Curiosity.
    Between the ridge and butte were tracks left by Curiosity's wheels as
    they rolled forward, out of the scene. In the image foreground is, of
    course, humanity's current eyes on Mars: the complex robotic rover
    Curiosity itself. Later this year, if all goes well, NASA will have
    another rover -- and more eyes -- on Mars. Today you can help determine
    the name of this rover yourself, but tomorrow is the last day to cast
    your vote.

    Help Name the Mars 2020 Rover: Vote here!
    Tomorrow's picture: evaporating comet
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, January 27, 2020 01:40:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 27

    Comet CG Evaporates
    Image Credit & License: ESA, Rosetta, NAVCAM

    Explanation: Where do comet tails come from? There are no obvious
    places on the nuclei of comets from which the jets that create comet
    tails emanate. One of the best images of emerging jets is shown in the
    featured picture, taken in 2015 by ESA's robotic Rosetta spacecraft
    that orbited Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Comet CG) from 2014 to
    2016. The picture shows plumes of gas and dust escaping numerous places
    from Comet CG's nucleus as it neared the Sun and heated up. The comet
    has two prominent lobes, the larger one spanning about 4 kilometers,
    and a smaller 2.5-kilometer lobe connected by a narrow neck. Analyses
    indicate that evaporation must be taking place well inside the comet's
    surface to create the jets of dust and ice that we see emitted through
    the surface. Comet CG (also known as Comet 67P) loses in jets about a
    meter of radius during each of its 6.44-year orbits around the Sun, a
    rate at which will completely destroy the comet in only thousands of
    years. In 2016, Rosetta's mission ended with a controlled impact onto
    Comet CG's surface.

    Outreach Astronomers: Future APOD writers sought.
    Tomorrow's picture: a tad spacey
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, January 28, 2020 00:58:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 28

    Star Formation in the Tadpole Nebula
    Image Credit: WISE, IRSA, NASA; Processing & Copyright: Francesco
    Antonucci

    Explanation: What's all of the commotion in the Tadpole Nebula? Star
    formation. Dusty emission in the Tadpole Nebula, IC 410, lies about
    12,000 light-years away in the northern constellation of the Charioteer
    (Auriga). The cloud of glowing gas is over 100 light-years across,
    sculpted by stellar winds and radiation from embedded open star cluster
    NGC 1893. Formed in the interstellar cloud a mere 4 million years ago,
    bright newly formed cluster stars are seen all around the star-forming
    nebula. Notable near the image center are two relatively dense
    streamers of material trailing away from the nebula's central regions.
    Potentially sites of ongoing star formation in IC 410, these cosmic
    tadpole shapes are about 10 light-years long. The featured image was
    taken in infrared light by NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer
    (WISE) satellite.

    Discovery + Outreach: Graduate student research position open for APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: steaming galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, January 29, 2020 00:26:50

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 29

    Milky Way over Yellowstone
    Image Credit & Copyright: Lori Jacobs

    Explanation: The Milky Way was not created by an evaporating lake. The
    pool of vivid blue water, about 10 meters across, is known as Silex
    Spring and is located in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, USA.
    Steam rises off the spring, heated by a magma chamber deep underneath
    known as the Yellowstone hotspot. The steam blurs the image of Venus,
    making it seem unusually large. Unrelated and far in the distance, the
    central band of our Milky Way Galaxy rises high overhead, a band lit by
    billions of stars. The featured picture is a 3-image panorama taken
    last August. If the Yellowstone hotspot causes another supervolcanic
    eruption as it did 640,000 years ago, a large part of North America
    would be affected.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, January 30, 2020 00:48:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 30

    Two Clusters and a Comet
    Image Credit & Copyright: Rolando Ligustri (CARA Project, CAST)

    Explanation: This lovely starfield spans some four full moons (about 2
    degrees) across the heroic northern constellation of Perseus. In
    telescopic exposures made during the nights of January 24, 26, and 28
    it holds the famous pair of open or galactic star clusters h and Chi
    Persei with comet PanSTARRS (C/2017 T2) captured each night as it swept
    left to right across the field of view. Also cataloged as NGC 869
    (right) and NGC 884, both star clusters are about 7,000 light-years
    away and contain stars much younger and hotter than the Sun. Separated
    by only a few hundred light-years, the clusters are both 13 million
    years young based on the ages of their individual stars, evidence that
    they were likely a product of the same star-forming region. Discovered
    in 2017 while still beyond the orbit of Saturn, Comet PanSTARRs is a
    new visitor to the inner solar system and just over 13 light-minutes
    from planet Earth. Always a rewarding sight in binoculars, the Double
    Cluster is even visible to the unaided eye from dark locations. C/2017
    T2 could remain a telescopic comet though. One of the brightest comets
    anticipated in 2020 it makes its closest approach to the Sun in early
    May.

    Tomorrow's picture: Goldilocks and the Three Stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, January 31, 2020 00:18:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 January 31

    Goldilocks Zones and Stars
    Infographic Credit: NASA ESA, Z. Levy (STScI)

    Explanation: The Goldilocks zone is the habitable zone around a star
    where it's not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on
    the surface of orbiting planets. This intriguing infographic includes
    relative sizes of those zones for yellow G stars like the Sun, along
    with orange K dwarf stars and red M dwarf stars, both cooler and
    fainter than the Sun. M stars (top) have small, close-in Goldilocks
    zones. They are also seen to live long (100 billion years or so) and
    are very abundant, making up about 73 percent of the stars in the Milky
    Way. Still, they have very active magnetic fields and may produce too
    much radiation harmful to life, with an estimated X-ray irradiance 400
    times the quiet Sun. Sun-like G stars (bottom) have large Goldilocks
    zones and are relatively calm, with low amounts of harmful radiation.
    But they only account for 6 percent of Milky Way stars and are much
    shorter lived. In the search for habitable planets, K dwarf stars could
    be just right, though. Not too rare they have 40 billion year
    lifetimes, much longer than the Sun. With a relatively wide habitable
    zone they produce only modest amounts of harmful radiation. These
    Goldilocks stars account for about 13 percent of the stars of the Milky
    Way.

    Tomorrow's picture: Apollo 14 Earthrise
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, February 01, 2020 00:25:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 1

    Apollo 14 Heads for Home
    Image Credit Apollo 14, NASA, JSC, ASU (Image Reprocessing: Andy
    Saunders)

    Explanation: When leaving lunar orbit in February 1971, the crew of
    Apollo 14 watched this Earthrise from their command module Kittyhawk.
    With Earth's sunlit crescent just peaking over the lunar horizon, the
    cratered terrain in the foreground is along the lunar farside. Of
    course, while orbiting the Moon, the crew could watch Earth rise and
    set, but the Earth hung stationary in the sky over Fra Mauro Base,
    their landing site on the lunar surface. Rock samples brought back by
    the Apollo 14 mission included a 20 pound rock nicknamed Big Bertha,
    later determined to contain a likely fragment of a meteorite from
    planet Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: shocking infrared
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, February 02, 2020 00:39:56

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 2

    Zeta Oph: Runaway Star
    Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Spitzer Space Telescope

    Explanation: Like a ship plowing through cosmic seas, runaway star Zeta
    Ophiuchi produces the arcing interstellar bow wave or bow shock seen in
    this stunning infrared portrait. In the false-color view, bluish Zeta
    Oph, a star about 20 times more massive than the Sun, lies near the
    center of the frame, moving toward the left at 24 kilometers per
    second. Its strong stellar wind precedes it, compressing and heating
    the dusty interstellar material and shaping the curved shock front.
    What set this star in motion? Zeta Oph was likely once a member of a
    binary star system, its companion star was more massive and hence
    shorter lived. When the companion exploded as a supernova
    catastrophically losing mass, Zeta Oph was flung out of the system.
    About 460 light-years away, Zeta Oph is 65,000 times more luminous than
    the Sun and would be one of the brighter stars in the sky if it weren't
    surrounded by obscuring dust. The image spans about 1.5 degrees or 12
    light-years at the estimated distance of Zeta Ophiuchi. Last week, NASA
    placed the Spitzer Space Telescope in safe mode, ending its 16
    successful years of studying our universe.

    News: NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope Ends Mission of Astronomical
    Discovery
    Tomorrow's picture: sun bubbling
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, February 03, 2020 00:17:04

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 3

    Solar Granules at Record High Resolution
    Image Credit: NSO, NSF, AURA, Inouye Solar Telescope

    Explanation: Why does the Sun's surface keep changing? The help find
    out, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) has built the Daniel K.
    Inouye Solar Telescope in Hawaii, USA. The Inouye telescope has a
    larger mirror that enables the capturing of images of higher
    resolution, at a faster rate, and in more colors than ever before.
    Featured are recently-released first-light images taken over 10 minutes
    and combined into a 5-second time-lapse video. The video captures an
    area on the Sun roughly the size of our Earth, features granules
    roughly the size of a country, and resolves features as small as
    30-kilometers across. Granule centers are bright due to the upwelling
    hot solar plasma, while granule edges are dim due to the cooled plasma
    falling back. Some regions between granules edges are very bright as
    they are curious magnetic windows into a deep and hotter solar
    interior. How the Sun's magnetic field keeps changing, channeling
    energy, and affecting the distant Earth, among many other topics, will
    be studied for years to come using data from the new Inouye telescope.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,100+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: grand canyon night sky
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, February 04, 2020 00:12:42

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 4

    A Sunset Night Sky over the Grand Canyon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Robert Q. Fugate

    Explanation: Seeing mountain peaks glow red from inside the Grand
    Canyon was one of the most incredible sunset experiences of this
    amateur photographer's life. They appeared even more incredible later,
    when digitally combined with an exposure of the night sky -- taken by
    the same camera and from the same location -- an hour later. The two
    images were taken last August from the 220 Mile Canyon campsite on the
    Colorado River, Colorado, USA. The peaks glow red because they were lit
    by an usually red sunset. Later, high above, the band of the Milky Way
    Galaxy angled dramatically down, filled with stars, nebula, and dark
    clouds of dust. To the Milky Way's left is the planet Saturn, while to
    the right is the brighter Jupiter. Although Jupiter and Saturn are now
    hard to see, Venus will be visible and quite bright to the west in
    clear skies, just after sunset, for the next two months.

    Astrophotography with Your Computer: NASA's Astrophoto Challenges
    Tomorrow's picture: many moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, February 05, 2020 03:28:36

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 5

    Lunar Eclipse Perspectives
    Image Credit: F. Pichardo, G. Hogan, P. Horálek, F. Hemmerich, S.
    Schraebler, L. Hašpl, R. Eder;
    Processing & Copyright : Matipon Tangmatitham; Text: Matipon
    Tangmatitham (NARIT)

    Explanation: Do we all see the same Moon? Yes, but we all see it
    differently. One difference is the apparent location of the Moon
    against background stars -- an effect known as parallax. We humans use
    the parallax between our eyes to judge depth. To see lunar parallax,
    though, we need eyes placed at a much greater separations -- hundreds
    to thousands of kilometers apart. Another difference is that observers
    around the Earth all see a slightly different face of our spherical
    Moon -- an effect known as libration. The featured image is a composite
    of many views across the Earth, as submitted to APOD, of the total
    lunar eclipse of 2019 January 21. These images are projected against
    the same background stars to illustrate both effects. The accurate
    superposition of these images was made possible by a serendipitous
    meteorite impact on the Moon during the lunar eclipse, labeled here
    L1-21J -- guaranteeing that these submitted images were all taken
    within a split second.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, February 06, 2020 00:03:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 6

    Southern Moonscape
    Image Credit & Copyright: Tom Glenn

    Explanation: The Moon's south pole is near the top of this detailed
    telescopic view. Looking across the rugged southern lunar highlands it
    was captured from southern California, planet Earth. At the Moon's
    third quarter phase the lunar terminator, the sunset shadow line, is
    approaching from the left. The scene's foreshortened perspective
    heightens the impression of a dense field of craters and makes the
    craters themselves appear more oval shaped close to the lunar limb.
    Below and left of center is sharp-walled crater Tycho, 85 kilometers in
    diameter. Young Tycho's central peak is still in sunlight, but casts a
    long shadow across the crater floor. The large prominent crater to the
    south (above) Tycho is Clavius. Nearly 231 kilometers in diameter its
    walls and floor are pocked with smaller, more recent, overlaying impact
    craters. Mountains visible along the lunar limb at the top can rise
    about 6 kilometers or so above the surrounding terrain.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, February 08, 2020 02:57:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 8

    Cosmic Clouds in the Unicorn
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bray Falls

    Explanation: Interstellar clouds of hydrogen gas and dust abound in
    this gorgeous skyscape. The 3 degree wide field of view stretches
    through the faint but fanciful constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn. A
    star forming region cataloged as NGC 2264 is centered, a complex jumble
    of cosmic gas, dust and stars about 2,700 light-years distant. It mixes
    reddish emission nebulae excited by energetic light from newborn stars
    with dark dust clouds. Where the otherwise obscuring dust clouds lie
    close to hot, young stars they also reflect starlight, forming blue
    reflection nebulae. A few light-years across, a simple sculpted shape
    known as the Cone Nebula is near center. Outlined by the red glow of
    hydrogen gas, the cone points toward the left and bright, blue-white S
    Monocerotis. Itself a multiple system of massive, hot stars S Mon is
    adjacent to bluish reflection nebulae and the convoluted Fox Fur
    nebula. Expansive dark markings on the sky are silhouetted by a larger
    region of fainter emission with yellowish open star cluster Trumpler 5
    near the top of the frame. The curious compact cometary shape right of
    center is known as Hubble's Variable Nebula.

    Tomorrow's picture: closer to home
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, February 09, 2020 00:51:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 9

    To Fly Free in Space
    Image Credit: NASA, STS-41B

    Explanation: What would it be like to fly free in space? At about 100
    meters from the cargo bay of the space shuttle Challenger, Bruce
    McCandless II was living the dream -- floating farther out than anyone
    had ever been before. Guided by a Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU),
    astronaut McCandless, pictured, was floating free in space. McCandless
    and fellow NASA astronaut Robert Stewart were the first to experience
    such an "untethered space walk" during Space Shuttle mission 41-B in
    1984. The MMU worked by shooting jets of nitrogen and was used to help
    deploy and retrieve satellites. With a mass over 140 kilograms, an MMU
    is heavy on Earth, but, like everything, is weightless when drifting in
    orbit. The MMU was later replaced with the SAFER backpack propulsion
    unit.

    Tomorrow's picture: eclipsing camel
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, February 10, 2020 00:13:48

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 10

    Solar Eclipse over the UAE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Joshua Cripps

    Explanation: What's happening behind that camel? A partial eclipse of
    the Sun. About six and a half weeks ago, the Moon passed completely in
    front of the Sun as seen from a narrow band on the Earth. Despite
    (surely) many camels being located in this narrow band, only one found
    itself stationed between this camera, the distant Moon, and the even
    more distant Sun. To create this impressive superposition, though, took
    a well-planned trip to the United Arab Emirates, careful alignments,
    and accurate timings on the day of the eclipse. Although the resulting
    featured image shows a partially eclipsed Sun rising, the Moon went on
    to appear completely engulfed by the Sun in an annular eclipse known as
    a ring of fire. Forward scattering of sunlight, dominated by quantum
    mechanical diffraction, gives the camel hair and rope fray an unusual
    glow. The next solar eclipse is also an annular eclipse and will occur
    this coming June.

    Tomorrow's picture: sky divide
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, February 11, 2020 03:29:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 11

    Launch of the Solar Orbiter
    Image Credit & Copyright: Derek Demeter (Emil Buehler Planetarium)

    Explanation: How does weather on the Sun affect humanity? To help find
    out, the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA have just launched the
    Solar Orbiter. This Sun-circling robotic spaceship will monitor the
    Sun's changing light, solar wind, and magnetic field not only from the
    usual perspective of Earth but also from above and below the Sun.
    Pictured, a long duration exposure of the launch of the Solar Orbiter
    shows the graceful arc of the bright engines of United Launch
    Alliance's Atlas V rocket as they lifted the satellite off the Earth.
    Over the next few years, the Solar Orbiter will use the gravity of
    Earth and Venus to veer out of the plane of the planets and closer to
    the Sun than Mercury. Violent weather on the Sun, including solar
    flares and coronal mass ejections, has shown the ability to interfere
    with power grids on the Earth and communications satellites in Earth
    orbit. The Solar Orbiter is expected to coordinate observations with
    the also Sun-orbiting Parker Solar Probe launched in 2018.

    Solar Orbiter to Space: Watch the Launch
    Tomorrow's picture: sky divide
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, February 12, 2020 00:33:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 12

    Star Trails of the North and South
    Image Credit & Copyright: Saeid Parchini

    Explanation: What divides the north from the south? It all has to do
    with the spin of the Earth. On Earth's surface, the equator is the
    dividing line, but on Earth's sky, the dividing line is the Celestial
    Equator -- the equator's projection onto the sky. You likely can't see
    the Earth's equator around you, but anyone with a clear night sky can
    find the Celestial Equator by watching stars move. Just locate the
    dividing line between stars that arc north and stars that arc south.
    Were you on Earth's equator, the Celestial Equator would go straight up
    and down. In general, the angle between the Celestial Equator and the
    vertical is your latitude. The featured image combines 325 photos
    taken every 30 seconds over 162 minutes. Taken soon after sunset
    earlier this month, moonlight illuminates a snowy and desolate scene in
    northwest Iran. The bright streak behind the lone tree is the planet
    Venus setting.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, February 13, 2020 00:15:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 13

    Spitzer's Trifid
    Image Credit: J. Rho (SSC/Caltech), JPL-Caltech, NASA

    Explanation: The Trifid Nebula, also known as Messier 20, is easy to
    find with a small telescope. About 30 light-years across and 5,500
    light-years distant it's a popular stop for cosmic tourists in the
    nebula rich constellation Sagittarius. As its name suggests, visible
    light pictures show the nebula divided into three parts by dark,
    obscuring dust lanes. But this penetrating infrared image reveals the
    Trifid's filaments of glowing dust clouds and newborn stars. The
    spectacular false-color view is courtesy of the Spitzer Space
    Telescope. Astronomers have used the infrared image data to count
    newborn and embryonic stars which otherwise can lie hidden in the natal
    dust and gas clouds of this intriguing stellar nursery. Launched in
    2003, Spitzer explored the infrared Universe from an Earth-trailing
    solar orbit until its science operations were brought to a close
    earlier this year, on January 30.

    Tomorrow's picture: pale blue
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, February 15, 2020 00:18:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 15

    Carina Nebula Close Up
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, ESO, Amateur Data; Processing &
    Copyright: Robert Gendler & Roberto Colombari

    Explanation: A jewel of the southern sky, the Great Carina Nebula, also
    known as NGC 3372, spans over 300 light-years, one of our galaxy's
    largest star forming regions. Like the smaller, more northerly Great
    Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is easily visible to the unaided eye,
    though at a distance of 7,500 light-years it is some 5 times farther
    away. This gorgeous telescopic close-up reveals remarkable details of
    the region's central glowing filaments of interstellar gas and
    obscuring cosmic dust clouds in a field of view nearly 20 light-years
    across. The Carina Nebula is home to young, extremely massive stars,
    including the still enigmatic and violently variable Eta Carinae, a
    star system with well over 100 times the mass of the Sun. In the
    processed composite of space and ground-based image data a dusty,
    two-lobed Homunculus Nebula appears to surround Eta Carinae itself just
    below and left of center. While Eta Carinae is likely on the verge of a
    supernova explosion, X-ray images indicate that the Great Carina Nebula
    has been a veritable supernova factory.

    Tomorrow's picture: planetary nebula portrait
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, February 16, 2020 00:12:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 16

    NGC 2392: Double-Shelled Planetary Nebula
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, Chandra; Processing & License: Judy
    Schmidt

    Explanation: To some, this huge nebula resembles a person's head
    surrounded by a parka hood. In 1787, astronomer William Herschel
    discovered this unusual planetary nebula: NGC 2392. More recently, the
    Hubble Space Telescope imaged the nebula in visible light, while the
    nebula was also imaged in X-rays by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The
    featured combined visible-X ray image, shows X-rays emitted by central
    hot gas in pink. The nebula displays gas clouds so complex they are not
    fully understood. NGC 2392 is a double-shelled planetary nebula, with
    the more distant gas having composed the outer layers of a Sun-like
    star only 10,000 years ago. The outer shell contains unusual light-year
    long orange filaments. The inner filaments visible are being ejected by
    strong wind of particles from the central star. The NGC 2392 Nebula
    spans about 1/3 of a light year and lies in our Milky Way Galaxy, about
    3,000 light years distant, toward the constellation of the Twins
    (Gemini).

    Tomorrow's picture: fade to red
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, February 17, 2020 00:08:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 17

    The Changing Surface of Fading Betelgeuse
    Image Credit: ESO, M. Montargès et al.

    Explanation: Besides fading, is Betelgeuse changing its appearance?
    Yes. The famous red supergiant star in the familiar constellation of
    Orion is so large that telescopes on Earth can actually resolve its
    surface -- although just barely. The two featured images taken with the
    European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope show how the
    star's surface appeared during the beginning and end of last year. The
    earlier image shows Betelgeuse having a much more uniform brightness
    than the later one, while the lower half of Betelgeuse became
    significantly dimmer than the top. Now during the first five months of
    2019 amateur observations show Betelgeuse actually got slightly
    brighter, while in the last five months the star dimmed dramatically.
    Such variability is likely just normal behavior for this famously
    variable supergiant, but the recent dimming has rekindled discussion on
    how long it may be before Betelgeuse does go supernova. Since
    Betelgeuse is about 700 light years away, its eventual supernova --
    probably thousands of years in the future -- will likely be an amazing
    night-sky spectacle, but will not endanger life on Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: hunter stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, February 18, 2020 00:29:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 18

    Orion over the Central Bohemian Highlands
    Image Credit & Copyright: Vojtěch Bauer

    Explanation: Do you recognize this constellation? Setting past the
    Central Bohemian Highlands in the Czech Republic is Orion, one of the
    most identifiable star groupings on the sky and an icon familiar to
    humanity for over 30,000 years. Orion has looked pretty much the same
    during this time and should continue to look the same for many
    thousands of years into the future. Prominent Orion is high in the sky
    at sunset this time of year, a recurring sign of (modern) winter in
    Earth's northern hemisphere and summer in the south. The featured
    picture is a composite of over thirty images taken from the same
    location and during the same night last month. Below and slightly to
    the left of Orion's three-star belt is the Orion Nebula, while four of
    the bright stars surrounding the belt are, clockwise, Sirius (far left,
    blue), Betelgeuse (top, orange, unusually faint), Aldebaran (far
    right), and Rigel (below). As future weeks progress, Orion will set
    increasingly earlier.

    Infinite Random Loop: Create an APOD Station in your classroom or
    Science Center.
    Tomorrow's picture: fastest galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, February 19, 2020 00:17:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 19

    UGC 12591: The Fastest Rotating Galaxy Known
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble; Processing & Copyright: Leo Shatz

    Explanation: Why does this galaxy spin so fast? To start, even
    identifying which type of galaxy UGC 12591 is difficult -- featured on
    the lower left, it has dark dust lanes like a spiral galaxy but a large
    diffuse bulge of stars like a lenticular. Surprisingly observations
    show that UGC 12591 spins at about 480 km/sec, almost twice as fast as
    our Milky Way, and the fastest rotation rate yet measured. The mass
    needed to hold together a galaxy spinning this fast is several times
    the mass of our Milky Way Galaxy. Progenitor scenarios for UGC 12591
    include slow growth by accreting ambient matter, or rapid growth
    through a recent galaxy collision or collisions -- future observations
    may tell. The light we see today from UGC 12591 left about 400 million
    years ago, when trees were first developing on Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, February 20, 2020 00:17:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 20

    Trifecta at Twilight
    Image Credit & Copyright: Paul Schmit, Gary Schmit

    Explanation: On February 18, as civil twilight began in northern New
    Mexico skies, the International Space Station, a waning crescent Moon,
    and planet Mars for a moment shared this well-planned single field of
    view. From the photographer's location the sky had just begun to grow
    light, but the space station orbiting 400 kilometers above the Earth
    was already bathed in the morning sunlight. At 6:25am local time it
    took less than a second to cross in front of the lunar disk moving
    right to left in the composited successive frames. At the time, Mars
    itself had already emerged from behind the Moon following its much
    anticipated lunar occultation. The yellowish glow of the Red Planet is
    still in the frame at the upper right, beyond the Moon's dark edge.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, February 21, 2020 00:01:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 21

    LDN 1622: Dark Nebula in Orion
    Image Credit & Copyright: Min Xie

    Explanation: The silhouette of an intriguing dark nebula inhabits this
    cosmic scene. Lynds' Dark Nebula (LDN) 1622 appears against a faint
    background of glowing hydrogen gas only visible in long telescopic
    exposures of the region. In contrast, the brighter reflection nebula
    vdB 62 is more easily seen, just above and right of center. LDN 1622
    lies near the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, close on the sky to
    Barnard's Loop, a large cloud surrounding the rich complex of emission
    nebulae found in the Belt and Sword of Orion. With swept-back outlines,
    the obscuring dust of LDN 1622 is thought to lie at a similar distance,
    perhaps 1,500 light-years away. At that distance, this 1 degree wide
    field of view would span about 30 light-years. Young stars do lie
    hidden within the dark expanse and have been revealed in Spitzer Space
    telescope infrared images. Still, the foreboding visual appearance of
    LDN 1622 inspires its popular name, the Boogeyman Nebula.

    Tomorrow's picture: Central Centaurus A
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, February 22, 2020 00:09:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 22

    Central Centaurus A
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage (STScI/ AURA)-ESA/Hubble
    Collaboration

    Explanation: A mere 11 million light-years away, Centaurus A is the
    closest active galaxy to planet Earth. Also known as NGC 5128, the
    peculiar elliptical galaxy is over 60,000 light-years across. A region
    spanning about 8,500 light-years, including the galaxy's center (upper
    left), is framed in this sharp Hubble Space telescope close-up.
    Centaurus A is apparently the result of a collision of two otherwise
    normal galaxies resulting in a violent jumble of star forming regions,
    massive star clusters, and imposing dark dust lanes. Near the galaxy's
    center, left over cosmic debris is steadily being consumed by a central
    black hole with a billion times the mass of the Sun. As in other active
    galaxies, that process likely generates the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray
    energy radiated by Centaurus A.

    Tomorrow's picture: simulated Universe
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, February 23, 2020 00:36:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 23

    Illustris Simulation of the Universe
    Video Credit: Illustris Collaboration, NASA, PRACE, XSEDE, MIT, Harvard
    CfA;
    Music: The Poisoned Princess (Media Right Productions)

    Explanation: How did we get here? Click play, sit back, and watch. A
    computer simulation of the evolution of the universe provides insight
    into how galaxies formed and perspectives into humanity's place in the
    universe. The Illustris project exhausted 20 million CPU hours in 2014
    following 12 billion resolution elements spanning a cube 35 million
    light years on a side as it evolved over 13 billion years. The
    simulation tracks matter into the formation of a wide variety of galaxy
    types. As the virtual universe evolves, some of the matter expanding
    with the universe soon gravitationally condenses to form filaments,
    galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. The featured video takes the
    perspective of a virtual camera circling part of this changing
    universe, first showing the evolution of dark matter, then hydrogen gas
    coded by temperature (0:45), then heavy elements such as helium and
    carbon (1:30), and then back to dark matter (2:07). On the lower left
    the time since the Big Bang is listed, while on the lower right the
    type of matter being shown is listed. Explosions (0:50) depict
    galaxy-center supermassive black holes expelling bubbles of hot gas.
    Interesting discrepancies between Illustris and the real universe have
    been studied, including why the simulation produced an overabundance of
    old stars.

    Tomorrow's picture: lunar portal
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, February 26, 2020 00:40:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 26

    NGST-10b: Discovery of a Doomed Planet
    Illustration Credit: ESA, C. Carreau; Text: Alex R. Howe (NASA/USRA,
    Science Meets Fiction Blog)

    Explanation: This hot jupiter is doomed. Hot jupiters are giant planets
    like Jupiter that orbit much closer to their parent stars than Mercury
    does to our Sun. But some hot jupiters are more extreme than others.
    NGTS-10b, illustrated generically, is the closest and fastest-orbiting
    giant planet yet discovered, circling its home star in only 18 hours.
    NGTS-10b is a little larger than Jupiter, but it orbits less than two
    times the diameter of its parent star away from the star’s surface.
    When a planet orbits this close, it is expected to spiral inward,
    pulled down by tidal forces to be eventually ripped apart by the star’s
    gravity. NGTS-10b, discovered by researchers at the University of
    Warwick, is named after the ESO’s Next Generation Transit Survey, which
    detected the imperiled planet when it passed in front of its star,
    blocking some of the light. Although the violent demise of NGTS-10b
    will happen eventually, we don't yet know when.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, February 27, 2020 00:47:46
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 27

    Two Hemisphere Night Sky
    Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horálek/ESO, Juan Carlos Casado/IAC
    (TWAN)

    Explanation: The Sun is hidden by a horizon that runs across the middle
    in this two hemisphere view of Earth's night sky. The digitally
    stitched mosaics were recorded from corresponding latitudes, one 29
    degrees north and one 29 degrees south of the planet's equator. On top
    is the northern view from the IAC observatory at La Palma taken in
    February 2020. Below is a well-matched southern scene from the ESO La
    Silla Observatory recorded in April 2016. In this projection, the Milky
    Way runs almost vertically above and below the horizon. Its dark clouds
    and and bright nebulae are prominent near the galactic center in the
    lower half of the frame. In the upper half, brilliant Venus is immersed
    in zodiacal light. Sunlight faintly scattered by interplanetary dust,
    the zodiacal light traces the Solar System's ecliptic plane in a
    complete circle through the starry sky. Large telescope domes bulge
    along the inverted horizon from La Silla while at La Palma,
    multi-mirror Magic telescopes stand above center. Explore this two
    hemisphere night sky and you can also find the Andromeda Galaxy and the
    Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, February 28, 2020 00:10:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 28

    South Celestial Rocket Launch
    Image Credit & Copyright: Brendan Gully

    Explanation: At sunset on December 6 a Rocket Lab Electron rocket was
    launched from a rotating planet. With multiple small satellites on
    board it departed on a mission to low Earth orbit dubbed Running Out of
    Fingers from Mahia Peninsula on New Zealand's north island. The firey
    trace of the Electron's graceful launch arc is toward the south in this
    southern sea and skyscape. Drifting vapor trails and rocket exhaust
    plumes catch the sunlight even as the sky grows dark though, the
    setting Sun still shinning at altitude along the rocket's trajectory.
    Fixed to a tripod, the camera's perspective nearly aligns the peak of
    the rocket arc with the South Celestial Pole, but no bright star marks
    that location in the southern hemisphere's evening sky. Still, it's
    easy to find at the center of the star trail arcs in the timelapse
    composite.

    Tomorrow's picture: DOY 60
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, February 29, 2020 00:05:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 February 29

    Julius Caesar and Leap Days
    Image Credit & License: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Wikimedia

    Explanation: In 46 BC Julius Caesar reformed the calendar system. Based
    on advice by astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, the Julian calendar
    included one leap day every four years to account for the fact that an
    Earth year is slightly more than 365 days long. In modern terms, the
    time it takes for the planet to orbit the Sun once is 365.24219 mean
    solar days. So if calendar years contained exactly 365 days they would
    drift from the Earth's year by about 1 day every 4 years and eventually
    July (named for Julius Caesar himself) would occur during the northern
    hemisphere winter. By adopting a leap year with an extra day every four
    years, the Julian calendar year would drift much less. In 1582 Pope
    Gregory XIII provided the further fine-tuning that leap days should not
    occur in years ending in 00, unless divisible by 400. This Gregorian
    Calendar system is the one in wide use today. Of course, tidal friction
    in the Earth-Moon system slows Earth's rotation and gradually lengthens
    the day by about 14 milliseconds per century. That means that leap days
    like today will not be necessary ... about 4 million years from now.

    Tomorrow's picture: a hole in Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, March 01, 2020 00:57:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 1

    A Hole in Mars
    Image Credit: NASA, JPL, U. Arizona

    Explanation: What created this unusual hole in Mars? The hole was
    discovered by chance in 2011 on images of the dusty slopes of Mars'
    Pavonis Mons volcano taken by the HiRISE instrument aboard the robotic
    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter currently circling Mars. The hole, shown in
    representative color, appears to be an opening to an underground
    cavern, partly illuminated on the image right. Analysis of this and
    follow-up images revealed the opening to be about 35 meters across,
    while the interior shadow angle indicates that the underlying cavern is
    roughly 20 meters deep. Why there is a circular crater surrounding this
    hole remains a topic of speculation, as is the full extent of the
    underlying cavern. Holes such as this are of particular interest
    because their interior caves are relatively protected from the harsh
    surface of Mars, making them relatively good candidates to contain
    Martian life. These pits are therefore prime targets for possible
    future spacecraft, robots, and even human interplanetary explorers.

    Tomorrow's picture: big dolphin
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, March 02, 2020 00:36:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 2

    Sharpless-308: The Dolphin Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Chilesope 2, Pleaides Astrophotography Team
    (Peking U.)

    Explanation: Blown by fast winds from a hot, massive star, this cosmic
    bubble is much larger than the dolphin it appears to be. Cataloged as
    Sharpless 2-308 it lies some 5,200 light-years away toward the
    constellation of the Big Dog (Canis Major) and covers slightly more of
    the sky than a Full Moon. That corresponds to a diameter of 60
    light-years at its estimated distance. The massive star that created
    the bubble, a Wolf-Rayet star, is the bright one near the center of the
    nebula. Wolf-Rayet stars have over 20 times the mass of the Sun and are
    thought to be in a brief, pre-supernova phase of massive star
    evolution. Fast winds from this Wolf-Rayet star create the
    bubble-shaped nebula as they sweep up slower moving material from an
    earlier phase of evolution. The windblown nebula has an age of about
    70,000 years. Relatively faint emission captured in the featured
    expansive image is dominated by the glow of ionized oxygen atoms mapped
    to a blue hue.

    Tomorrow's picture: around the moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, March 03, 2020 01:17:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 3

    Apollo 13 Views of the Moon
    Video Credit: NASA, LRO; Data Visualization: Ernie Wright (USRA); Video
    Production & Editing: David Ladd (USRA);
    Music: Visions of Grandeur, Universal Production Music, Fredrick
    Wiedmann

    Explanation: What if the only way to get back to Earth was to go around
    the far side of the Moon? Such was the dilemma of the Apollo 13 Crew in
    1970 as they tried to return home in their unexpectedly damaged
    spacecraft. With the Moon in the middle, their perilous journey
    substituted spectacular views of the lunar farside for radio contact
    with NASA's Mission Control. These views have now been digitally
    recreated from detailed images of the Moon taken by the robotic Lunar
    Reconnaissance Orbiter. The featured video starts by showing Earth
    disappear behind a dark lunar limb, while eight minutes later the Sun
    rises around the opposite side of the Moon and begins to illuminate the
    Moon's unusual and spectacularly cratered surface. Radio contact was
    only re-established several minutes after that, as a crescent Earth
    rose into view. With the gravity of the Moon and the advice of many
    industrious NASA engineers and scientists, a few days later Apollo 13
    opened its parachutes over the Pacific Ocean and landed safely back on
    Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: galaxies dance
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, March 04, 2020 01:23:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 4

    The Slow Dance of Galaxies NGC 5394 and 5395
    Image Credit: Gemini, NSF, OIR Lab, AURA; Text: Ryan Tanner (NASA/USRA)

    Explanation: If you like slow dances, then this may be one for you. A
    single turn in this dance takes several hundred million years. Two
    galaxies, NGC 5394 and NGC 5395, slowly whirl about each other in a
    gravitational interaction that sets off a flourish of sparks in the
    form of new stars. The featured image, taken with the Gemini North
    8-meter telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii, USA, combines four different
    colors. Emission from hydrogen gas, colored red, marks stellar
    nurseries where new stars drive the evolution of the galaxies. Also
    visible are dark dust lanes that mark gas that will eventually become
    stellar nurseries. If you look carefully you will see many more
    galaxies in the background, some involved in their own slow cosmic
    dances.

    APOD across world languages: Arabic, Catalan, Chinese (Beijing),
    Chinese (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Farsi, French,
    French, German, Hebrew, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Montenegrin,
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish and Ukrainian
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, March 05, 2020 00:18:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 5

    The Light, the Dark, and the Dusty
    Image Credit & Copyright: Casey Good

    Explanation: This colorful skyscape spans about four full moons across
    nebula rich starfields along the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy in the
    royal northern constellation Cepheus. Near the edge of the region's
    massive molecular cloud some 2,400 light-years away, bright reddish
    emission region Sharpless (Sh) 155 is left of center, also known as the
    Cave Nebula. About 10 light-years across the cosmic cave's bright walls
    of gas are ionized by ultraviolet light from the hot young stars around
    it. Dusty blue reflection nebulae, like vdB 155 at lower right, and
    dense obscuring clouds of dust also abound on the interstellar canvas.
    Astronomical explorations have revealed other dramatic signs of star
    formation, including the bright red fleck of Herbig-Haro (HH) 168.
    Below center in the frame, the Herbig-Haro object emission is generated
    by energetic jets from a newborn star.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, March 06, 2020 01:09:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 6

    Mars Panorama from Curiosity
    Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, MSSS

    Explanation: The Mars Rover named Curiosity recorded high-resolution,
    360 degree views of its location on Mars late last year. The panoramic
    scene was stitched from over 1,000 images from Curiosity's Mast camera
    or Mastcam. In this version, captured with Mastcam's medium angle lens,
    the rover's deck and robotic arm are in the foreground, stretched and
    distorted by the extreme wide perspective. Just beyond the rover are
    regions of clay rich rock, evidence for an ancient watery environment,
    with a clear view toward more distant martian ridges and buttes. Gale
    crater wall runs across the center (toward the north) in the background
    over 30 kilometers in the distance. The upper reaches of Mt. Sharp are
    at the far right. Images to construct the panorama were recorded over 4
    consecutive sols between local noon and 2pm to provide consistent
    lighting. Zoom in to the panoramic scene and you can easily spot the
    shadow casting sundial mounted on rover's deck (right). In July NASA
    plans to launch a new rover to Mars named Perseverance.

    Tomorrow's picture: under the stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, March 07, 2020 00:14:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 7

    Pic du Midi Panorama
    Image Credit & Copyright: Patrick Lécureuil

    Explanation: A surreal night skyscape, this panorama stitched from 12
    photos looks to the west at an evening winter sky over Pic du Midi
    Observatory, Pyrenees Mountains, Planet Earth. Telescope domes and a
    tall communications tower inhabit the rugged foreground. On the right,
    lights from Tarbes, France about 35 kilometers away impinge on the
    designated dark sky site though, but more distant terrestrial lights
    seen toward the left are from cities in Spain. Stars and nebulae of the
    northern winter's Milky Way arc through the sky above. Known to the
    planet's night skygazers, the Pleiades and Hyades star clusters still
    hang over the western horizon near center. Captured in mid February the
    familiar stars of the constellation Orion are to the left and include
    the no longer fainting star Betelgeuse.

    Tomorrow's picture: stellar winds
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, March 08, 2020 00:27:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 8

    Wolf-Rayet Star 124: Stellar Wind Machine
    Image Credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA, ESA; Processing & License:
    Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: Some stars explode in slow motion. Rare, massive
    Wolf-Rayet stars are so tumultuous and hot that they are slowly
    disintegrating right before our telescopes. Glowing gas globs each
    typically over 30 times more massive than the Earth are being expelled
    by violent stellar winds. Wolf-Rayet star WR 124, visible near the
    featured image center spanning six light years across, is thus creating
    the surrounding nebula known as M1-67. Details of why this star has
    been slowly blowing itself apart over the past 20,000 years remains a
    topic of research. WR 124 lies 15,000 light-years away towards the
    constellation of the Arrow (Sagitta). The fate of any given Wolf-Rayet
    star likely depends on how massive it is, but many are thought to end
    their lives with spectacular explosions such as supernovas or gamma-ray
    bursts.

    Tomorrow's picture: light after sunset
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, March 09, 2020 00:15:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 9

    Milky Way and Zodiacal Light over Chile
    Image Credit & Copyright: Roman Ponča (ht: Masaryk U.)

    Explanation: What is the band of light connecting the ground to the
    Milky Way? Zodiacal light -- a stream of dust that orbits the Sun in
    the inner Solar System. It is most easily seen just before sunrise,
    where it has been called a false dawn, or just after sunset. The origin
    of zodiacal dust remains a topic of research, but is hypothesized to
    result from asteroid collisions and comet tails. The featured
    wide-angle image shows the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy arching
    across the top, while the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite
    galaxy to our Milky Way, is visible on the far left. The image is a
    combination of over 30 exposures taken last July near La Serena among
    the mountains of Chile. During the next two months, zodiacal light can
    appear quite prominent in northern skies just after sunset.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: cone of stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, March 10, 2020 06:32:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 10

    Wide Field: Fox Fur, Unicorn, and Christmas Tree
    Image Credit & Copyright: Greg Gurdak

    Explanation: What do the following things have in common: a cone, the
    fur of a fox, and a Christmas tree? Answer: they all occur in the
    constellation of the unicorn (Monoceros). Pictured as a star forming
    region and cataloged as NGC 2264, the complex jumble of cosmic gas and
    dust is about 2,700 light-years distant and mixes reddish emission
    nebulae excited by energetic light from newborn stars with dark
    interstellar dust clouds. Where the otherwise obscuring dust clouds lie
    close to the hot, young stars they also reflect starlight, forming blue
    reflection nebulae. The featured wide-field image spans over three
    times the diameter of a full moon, covering over 100 light-years at the
    distance of NGC 2264. Its cast of cosmic characters includes the Fox
    Fur Nebula, whose convoluted pelt lies just to the lower right of the
    image center, bright variable star S Mon visible just above the Fox
    Fur, and the Cone Nebula just to the left. Given their distribution,
    the stars of NGC 2264 are also known as the Christmas Tree star
    cluster.

    Tomorrow's picture: extreme boom
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, March 11, 2020 00:02:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 11

    An Extreme Black Hole Outburst
    Image Credit: X-ray: Chandra: NASA/CXC/NRL/S. Giacintucci, et al.,
    XMM-Newton: ESA/XMM-Newton; Radio: NCRA/TIFR/GMRT; Infrared:
    2MASS/UMass/IPAC-Caltech/NASA/NSF; Text: Michael F. Corcoran (NASA,
    Catholic U., HEAPOW)

    Explanation: Astronomers believe they have now found the most powerful
    example of a black hole outburst yet seen in our Universe. The
    composite, false-color featured image is of a cluster of galaxies in
    the constellation of Ophiuchus, the serpent-bearer. The composite
    includes X-ray images (from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and
    XMM-Newton) in purple, and a radio image (from India's Giant Metrewave
    Radio Telescope) in blue (along with an infrared image of the galaxies
    and stars in the field in white for good measure). The dashed line
    marks the border of a cavity blown out by the supermassive black hole
    which lurks at the center of the galaxy marked by the cross. Radio
    emission fills this cavity. This big blowout is believed to be due to
    the black hole eating too much and experiencing a transient bout of
    "black hole nausea", which resulted in the ejection of a powerful radio
    jet blasting into intergalactic space. The amount of energy needed to
    blow this cavity is equivalent to about 10 billion supernova
    explosions.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, March 12, 2020 00:24:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 12

    Falcon 9 Boostback
    Image Credit & Copyright: John Kraus

    Explanation: Short star trails appear in this single 84 second long
    exposure, taken on March 6 from a rotating planet. The remarkable scene
    also captures the flight of a Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon cargo
    spacecraft over Cape Canaveral Air Force Station shortly after launch,
    on a resupply mission bound for the International Space Station.
    Beginning its return to a landing zone about 9 kilometers from the
    launch site, the Falcon 9 first stage boostback burn arcs toward the
    top of the frame. The second stage continues toward low Earth orbit
    though, its own fiery arc traced below the first stage boostback burn
    from the camera's perspective, along with expanding exhaust plumes from
    the two stages. This Dragon spacecraft was a veteran of two previous
    resupply missions. Successfully returning to the landing zone, this
    Falcon 9 first stage had flown before too. Its second landing marked
    the 50th landing of a SpaceX orbital class rocket booster.

    Tomorrow's picture: an awesome starry night
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, March 13, 2020 00:13:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 13

    Starry Night by Jean-Francois Millet
    Digital Reproduction Credit: Yale University Art Gallery - Text: Letty
    Bonnell

    Explanation: A dramatic nocturnal landscape from around 1850, this oil
    painting is the work of French artist Jean-Francois Millet. In the dark
    and atmospheric night sky are shooting stars, known too as meteors,
    above a landscape showing a path through the faintly lit countryside
    that leads toward trees and a cart in silhouette on the horizon. Millet
    was raised in a farming family in Normandy and is known for his
    paintings of rural scenes and peasant life. This Starry Night was
    painted after the artist moved to Barbizon, about 30 kilometers
    southeast of any 19th century light pollution from Paris. Millet wrote
    to his brother at this time, "If only you knew how beautiful the night
    is ... the calm and grandeur of it are so awesome that I find that I
    actually feel overwhelmed." Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh was an
    admirer of Millet's work, and later also painted two dramatic starry
    nights.

    Tomorrow's picture: pi in the sky
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, March 14, 2020 00:19:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 14

    Moonrise and Mountain Shadow
    Image Credit & Copyright: Daniel Lopez (El Cielo de Canarias)

    Explanation: What phase of the Moon is 3.14 radians from the Sun? The
    Full Moon, of course. Even though the Moon might look full for several
    days, the Moon is truly at its full phase when it is 3.14 radians (aka
    180 degrees) from the Sun in ecliptic longitude. That's opposite the
    Sun in planet Earth's sky. Rising as the Sun set on March 9, only an
    hour or so after the moment of its full phase, this orange tinted and
    slightly flattened Moon still looked full. It was photographed opposite
    the setting Sun from Teide National Park on the Canary Island of
    Tenerife. Also opposite the setting Sun, seen from near the Teide
    volcano peak about 3,500 meters above sea level, is the mountain's
    rising triangular shadow extending into Earth's dense atmosphere. Below
    the distant ridge line on the left are the white telescope domes of
    Teide Observatory

    Tomorrow's picture: comet blizzard
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    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, March 16, 2020 00:24:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 16

    A Moon Dressed Like Saturn
    Image Credit & Copyright: Francisco Sojuel

    Explanation: Why does Saturn appear so big? It doesn't -- what is
    pictured are foreground clouds on Earth crossing in front of the Moon.
    The Moon shows a slight crescent phase with most of its surface visible
    by reflected Earthlight known as ashen glow. The Sun directly
    illuminates the brightly lit lunar crescent from the bottom, which
    means that the Sun must be below the horizon and so the image was taken
    before sunrise. This double take-inducing picture was captured on 2019
    December 24, two days before the Moon slid in front of the Sun to
    create a solar eclipse. In the foreground, lights from small Guatemalan
    towns are visible behind the huge volcano Pacaya.

    Follow APOD in English on: Instagram, Facebook, Reddit, or Twitter
    Tomorrow's picture: galaxy swirl
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, March 17, 2020 00:16:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 17

    M77: Spiral Galaxy with an Active Center
    Image Credit: Hubble, NASA, ESA; Processing & License: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: What's happening in the center of nearby spiral galaxy
    M77? The face-on galaxy lies a mere 47 million light-years away toward
    the constellation of the Sea Monster (Cetus). At that estimated
    distance, this gorgeous island universe is about 100 thousand
    light-years across. Also known as NGC 1068, its compact and very bright
    core is well studied by astronomers exploring the mysteries of
    supermassive black holes in active Seyfert galaxies. M77 and its active
    core glows bright at x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio
    wavelengths. The featured sharp image of M77 was taken by the Hubble
    Space Telescope and is dominated by the (visible) red light emitted by
    hydrogen. The image shows details of the spiral's winding spiral arms
    as traced by obscuring dust clouds, and red-tinted star forming regions
    close in to the galaxy's luminous core.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,100+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: amazing rays
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, March 18, 2020 00:22:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 18

    Anticrepuscular Rays over Florida
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bryan Goff

    Explanation: What's happening behind those clouds? Although the scene
    may appear somehow supernatural, nothing more unusual is occurring than
    a Sun setting on the other side of the sky. Pictured here are
    anticrepuscular rays. To understand them, start by picturing common
    crepuscular rays that are seen any time that sunlight pours though
    scattered clouds. Now although sunlight indeed travels along straight
    lines, the projections of these lines onto the spherical sky are great
    circles. Therefore, the crepuscular rays from a setting (or rising) sun
    will appear to re-converge on the other side of the sky. At the
    anti-solar point 180 degrees around from the Sun, they are referred to
    as anticrepuscular rays. Featured here is a particularly striking
    display of anticrepuscular rays photographed in 2016 over Dry Tortugas
    National Park in Florida, USA.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, March 19, 2020 00:56:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 19

    M13: The Great Globular Cluster in Hercules
    Image Credit & Copyright: Eric Coles and Mel Helm

    Explanation: In 1716, English astronomer Edmond Halley noted, "This is
    but a little Patch, but it shews itself to the naked Eye, when the Sky
    is serene and the Moon absent." Of course, M13 is now less modestly
    recognized as the Great Globular Cluster in Hercules, one of the
    brightest globular star clusters in the northern sky. Sharp telescopic
    views like this one reveal the spectacular cluster's hundreds of
    thousands of stars. At a distance of 25,000 light-years, the cluster
    stars crowd into a region 150 light-years in diameter. Approaching the
    cluster core upwards of 100 stars could be contained in a cube just 3
    light-years on a side. For comparison, the closest star to the Sun is
    over 4 light-years away. The remarkable range of brightness recorded in
    this image follows stars into the dense cluster core and reveals three
    subtle dark lanes forming the apparent shape of a propeller just below
    and slightly left of center. Distant background galaxies in the
    medium-wide field of view include NGC 6207 at the upper left.

    Tomorrow's picture: when night/day = 1
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, March 20, 2020 00:23:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 20

    Morning, Planets, Moon and Montreal
    Image Credit & Copyright: Arnaud Mariat

    Explanation: Dawn's early light came to Montreal, northern planet
    Earth, on March 18, the day before the vernal equinox. At the end of
    that nearly equal night the Moon stands above a dense constellation of
    urban lights in this serene city and skyscape. Of course the Moon's
    waning crescent faces toward the rising Sun. Skygazers could easily
    spot bright Jupiter just above the Moon, close on the sky to a fainter
    Mars. Saturn, a telescopic favorite, is just a pinprick of light below
    and farther left of the closer conjunction of Moon, Jupiter and Mars.
    Near the ecliptic, even Mercury is rising along a line extended to the
    horizon from Jupiter and Saturn. The elusive inner planet is very close
    to the horizon though, and not quite visible in this morning's sky.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, March 21, 2020 00:05:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 21

    Comet ATLAS and the Mighty Galaxies
    Image Credit & Copyright: Rolando Ligustri (CARA Project, CAST)

    Explanation: Comet ATLAS C/2019 Y4 was discovered by the NASA funded
    Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, the last comet discovery
    reported in 2019. Now growing brighter in northern night skies, the
    comet's pretty greenish coma is at the upper left of this telescopic
    skyview captured from a remotely operated observatory in New Mexico on
    March 18. At lower right are M81 and M82, well-known as large,
    gravitationally interacting galaxies. Seen through faint dust clouds
    above the Milky Way, the galaxy pair lies about 12 million light-years
    distant, toward the constellation Ursa Major. In bound Comet ATLAS is
    about 9 light-minutes from Earth, still beyond the orbit of Mars. The
    comet's elongated orbit is similar to orbit of the Great Comet of 1844
    though, a trajectory that will return this comet to the inner Solar
    System in about 6,000 years. Comet ATLAS will reach a perihelion or
    closest approach to the Sun on May 31 inside the orbit of Mercury and
    may become a naked-eye comet in the coming days.

    Tomorrow's picture: moon down
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, March 22, 2020 00:08:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 22

    Moon Setting Behind Teide Volcano
    Video Credit & Copyright: Daniel L<pez (El Cielo de Canarias); Music:
    Piano della Moon (Dan Silva)

    Explanation: These people are not in danger. What is coming down from
    the left is just the Moon, far in the distance. Luna appears so large
    here because she is being photographed through a telescopic lens. What
    is moving is mostly the Earth, whose spin causes the Moon to slowly
    disappear behind Mount Teide, a volcano in the Canary Islands off the
    northwest coast of Africa. The people pictured are 16 kilometers away
    and many are facing the camera because they are watching the Sun rise
    behind the photographer. It is not a coincidence that a full moon rises
    just when the Sun sets because the Sun is always on the opposite side
    of the sky from a full moon. The featured video was made two years ago
    during the full Milk Moon. The video is not time-lapse -- this was
    really how fast the Moon was setting.

    Free Video Lectures: Introductory Astronomy
    Tomorrow's picture: clusters & dust
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, March 23, 2020 00:18:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 23

    From the Pleiades to the Eridanus Loop
    Image Credit & Copyright: Hirofumi Okubo

    Explanation: If you stare at an interesting patch of sky long enough,
    will it look different? In the case of Pleiades and Hyades star
    clusters -- and surrounding regions -- the answer is: yes, pretty
    different. Long duration camera exposures reveal an intricate network
    of interwoven interstellar dust and gas that was previously invisible
    not only to the eye but to lower exposure images. In the featured wide
    and deep mosaic, the dust stands out spectacularly, with the familiar
    Pleaides star cluster visible as the blue patch near the top of the
    image. Blue is the color of the Pleiades' most massive stars, whose
    distinctive light reflects from nearby fine dust. On the upper left is
    the Hyades star cluster surrounding the bright, orange, foreground-star
    Aldebaran. Red glowing emission nebula highlight the bottom of the
    image, including the curving vertical red ribbon known as the Eridanus
    Loop. The pervasive dust clouds appear typically in light brown and are
    dotted with unrelated stars.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: black hole shredder
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, March 24, 2020 00:01:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 24

    A Black Hole Disrupts a Passing Star
    Illustration Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech

    Explanation: What happens to a star that goes near a black hole? If the
    star directly impacts a massive black hole, then the star falls in
    completely -- and everything vanishes. More likely, though, the star
    goes close enough to have the black hole's gravity pull away the outer
    layers of the star, or disrupt the star. Then most of the star's gas
    does not fall into the black hole. These stellar tidal disruption
    events can be as bright as a supernova, and an increasing amount of
    them are being discovered by automated sky surveys. In the featured
    artist's illustration, a star has just passed a massive black hole and
    sheds gas that continues to orbit. The inner edge of a disk of gas and
    dust surrounding the black hole is heated by the disruption event and
    may glow long after the star is gone.

    Tomorrow's picture: star wings
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, March 25, 2020 07:19:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 25

    Star Forming Region S106
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Legacy Archive; Processing & Copyright:
    Utkarsh Mishra

    Explanation: Massive star IRS 4 is beginning to spread its wings. Born
    only about 100,000 years ago, material streaming out from this newborn
    star has formed the nebula dubbed Sharpless 2-106 Nebula (S106),
    featured here. A large disk of dust and gas orbiting Infrared Source 4
    (IRS 4), visible in brown near the image center, gives the nebula an
    hourglass or butterfly shape. S106 gas near IRS 4 acts as an emission
    nebula as it emits light after being ionized, while dust far from IRS 4
    reflects light from the central star and so acts as a reflection
    nebula. Detailed inspection of a relevant infrared image of S106 reveal
    hundreds of low-mass brown dwarf stars lurking in the nebula's gas.
    S106 spans about 2 light-years and lies about 2000 light-years away
    toward the constellation of the Swan (Cygnus).

    Tomorrow's picture: Andromeda Station
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    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, March 26, 2020 01:35:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 26

    Andromeda Station
    Composite Image Credit & Copyright: Ralf Rohner

    Explanation: This surreal picture isn't from a special effects sci-fi
    movie. It is a digital composite of frames of the real Andromeda
    Galaxy, also known as M31, rising over a real mountain. Exposures
    tracking the galaxy and background stars have been digitally combined
    with separate exposures of the foreground terrain. All background and
    foreground exposures were made back to back with the same camera and
    telephoto lens on the same night from the same location. In the
    "Deepscape" combination they produce a stunning image that reveals a
    range of brightness and color that your eye can't quite see on its own.
    Still, it does look like you could ride a cable car up this mountain
    and get off at the station right next to Andromeda. But at 2.5 million
    light-years from Earth the big beautiful spiral galaxy really is a
    little out of reach as a destination. Don't worry, though. Just wait 5
    billion years and the Andromeda Galaxy will come to you. This Andromeda
    Station is better known as Weisshorn, the highest peak of the ski area
    in Arosa, Switzerland.

    Tomorrow's picture: a little drop of galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, March 27, 2020 00:19:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 27

    A Little Drop of Galaxy
    Image Credit & Copyright: Massimo Tamajo

    Explanation: A drop of water seems to hold an entire galaxy in this
    creative macro-astrophotograph. In the imaginative work of cosmic
    nature photography a close-up lens was used to image a previously made
    picture of a galaxy, viewed through a water drop suspended from a stem.
    A favorite of many telescope-wielding astroimagers, the galaxy is the
    Andromeda Galaxy, also known as M31. About 100,000 light-years across
    that majestic galaxy's spiral arms and dust lanes are curved and
    distorted in the image contained in the centimeter-sized droplet.
    Andromeda is some 2.5 million light-years distant, but this project was
    still carried out while spending time indoors.

    Tomorrow's picture: a light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, March 28, 2020 00:29:54
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 28

    Stars Trail over Ragusa
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gianni Tumino

    Explanation: In trying times, stars still trail in the night. Taken on
    March 14, this night skyscape was made by combining 230 exposures each
    15 seconds long to follow the stars' circular paths. The camera was
    fixed to a tripod on an isolated terrace near the center of Ragusa,
    Italy, on the island of Sicily. But the night sky was shared around the
    rotating planet. A friend to celestial navigators and
    astrophotographers alike Polaris, the north star, makes the short
    bright trail near the center of the concentric celestial arcs.

    Tomorrow's picture: Orion, Orion, Orion
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, March 29, 2020 00:25:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 29

    A 212-Hour Exposure of Orion
    Image Credit & Copyright: Stanislav Volskiy, Rollover Annotation: Judy
    Schmidt

    Explanation: The constellation of Orion is much more than three stars
    in a row. It is a direction in space that is rich with impressive
    nebulas. To better appreciate this well-known swath of sky, an
    extremely long exposure was taken over many clear nights in 2013 and
    2014. After 212 hours of camera time and an additional year of
    processing, the featured 1400-exposure collage spanning over 40 times
    the angular diameter of the Moon emerged. Of the many interesting
    details that have become visible, one that particularly draws the eye
    is Barnard's Loop, the bright red circular filament arcing down from
    the middle. The Rosette Nebula is not the giant red nebula near the top
    of the image -- that is a larger but lesser known nebula known as
    Lambda Orionis. The Rosette Nebula is visible, though: it is the red
    and white nebula on the upper left. The bright orange star just above
    the frame center is Betelgeuse, while the bright blue star on the lower
    right is Rigel. Other famous nebulas visible include the Witch Head
    Nebula, the Flame Nebula, the Fox Fur Nebula, and, if you know just
    where to look, the comparatively small Horsehead Nebula. About those
    famous three stars that cross the belt of Orion the Hunter -- in this
    busy frame they can be hard to locate, but a discerning eye will find
    them just below and to the right of the image center.

    Tomorrow's picture: shadow saturn
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, March 30, 2020 00:20:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 30

    The Colors of Saturn from Cassini
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, JPL, ISS, Cassini Imaging Team; Processing &
    License: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: What creates Saturn's colors? The featured picture of
    Saturn only slightly exaggerates what a human would see if hovering
    close to the giant ringed world. The image was taken in 2005 by the
    robot Cassini spacecraft that orbited Saturn from 2004 to 2017. Here
    Saturn's majestic rings appear directly only as a curved line,
    appearing brown, in part, from its infrared glow. The rings best show
    their complex structure in the dark shadows they create across the
    upper part of the planet. The northern hemisphere of Saturn can appear
    partly blue for the same reason that Earth's skies can appear blue --
    molecules in the cloudless portions of both planet's atmospheres are
    better at scattering blue light than red. When looking deep into
    Saturn's clouds, however, the natural gold hue of Saturn's clouds
    becomes dominant. It is not known why southern Saturn does not show the
    same blue hue -- one hypothesis holds that clouds are higher there. It
    is also not known why some of Saturn's clouds are colored gold.

    Activities: NASA Science at Home
    Tomorrow's picture: galaxy center
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- BBBS/Li6 v4.10 Toy-4
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, March 31, 2020 00:20:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 March 31

    The Galactic Center from Radio to X-ray
    Image Credit: X-Ray: NASA, CXC, UMass, D. Wang et al.; Radio: NRF,
    SARAO, MeerKAT

    Explanation: In how many ways does the center of our Galaxy glow? This
    enigmatic region, about 26,000 light years away toward the
    constellation of the Archer (Sagittarius), glows in every type of light
    that we can see. In the featured image, high-energy X-ray emission
    captured by NASA's orbiting Chandra X-Ray Observatory appears in green
    and blue, while low-energy radio emission captured by SARAO's
    ground-based MeerKAT telescope array is colored red. Just on the right
    of the colorful central region lies Sagittarius A (Sag A), a strong
    radio source that coincides with Sag A*, our Galaxy's central
    supermassive black hole. Hot gas surrounds Sag A, as well as a series
    of parallel radio filaments known as the Arc, seen just left of the
    image center. Numerous unusual single radio filaments are visible
    around the image. Many stars orbit in and around Sag A, as well as
    numerous small black holes and dense stellar cores known as neutron
    stars and white dwarfs. The Milky Way's central supermassive black hole
    is currently being imaged by the Event Horizon Telescope.

    Activities: NASA Science at Home
    Tomorrow's picture: edible asteroid?
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- BBBS/Li6 v4.10 Toy-4
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, April 01, 2020 00:27:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 1
    See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest
    resolution version available.

    Asteroid or Potato?
    Image Credit: Jack Sutton

    Explanation: Is this asteroid Arrokoth or a potato? Perhaps, after all
    the data was beamed back to Earth from NASA's robotic New Horizons
    spacecraft, the featured high resolution image of asteroid Arrokoth was
    constructed. Perhaps, alternatively, the featured image is of a potato.
    Let's consider some facts. Arrokoth is the most distant asteroid ever
    visited and a surviving remnant of the early years of our Solar System.
    A potato is a root vegetable that you can eat. Happy April Fool's Day
    from the folks at APOD! Although asteroid Arrokoth may look like a
    potato, in fact very much like the featured potato, Arrokoth (formerly
    known as Ultima Thule) is about 200,000 times wider and much harder to
    eat.

    Activities: NASA Science at Home
    Tomorrow's picture: tubers in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- BBBS/Li6 v4.10 Toy-4
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, April 02, 2020 03:39:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 2

    Venus and the Pleiades in April
    Digital Illustration Credit & Copyright: Fred Espenak (Bifrost
    Astronomical Observatory)

    Explanation: Venus is currently the brilliant evening star. Shared
    around world, in tonight's sky Venus will begin to wander across the
    face of the lovely Pleiades star cluster. This digital sky map
    illustrates the path of the inner planet as the beautiful conjunction
    evolves, showing its position on the sky over the next few days. The
    field of view shown is appropriate for binocular equipped skygazers but
    the star cluster and planet are easily seen with the naked-eye. As
    viewed from our fair planet, Venus passed in front of the stars of the
    Seven Sisters 8 years ago, and will again 8 years hence. In fact,
    orbiting the Sun 13 Venus years are almost equal to 8 years on planet
    Earth. So we can expect our sister planet to visit nearly the same
    place in our sky every 8 years.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, April 03, 2020 00:31:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 3

    The Traffic in Taurus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Lionel Majzik

    Explanation: There's a traffic jam in Taurus lately. On April 1, this
    celestial frame from slightly hazy skies over Tapiobicske, Hungary
    recorded an impressive pile up toward the zodiacal constellation of the
    Bull and the Solar System's ecliptic plane. Streaking right to left the
    International Space Station speeds across the bottom of the telescopic
    field of view. Wandering about as far from the Sun in planet Earth's
    skies as it can get, inner planet Venus is bright and approaching much
    slower, overexposed at the right. Bystanding at the upper left are the
    sister stars of the Pleiades. No one has been injured in the close
    encounter though, because it really isn't very close. Continuously
    occupied since November 2000, the space station orbits some 400
    kilometers above the planet's surface. Venus, currently the brilliant
    evening star, is almost 2/3 of an astronomical unit away. A more
    permanent resident of Taurus, the Pleiades star cluster is 400
    light-years distant.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, April 04, 2020 01:29:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 4

    Venus and the Sisters
    Image Credit & Copyright: Fred Espenak (Bifrost Astronomical
    Observatory)

    Explanation: After wandering about as far from the Sun on the sky as
    Venus can get, the brilliant evening star is crossing paths with the
    sister stars of the Pleiades cluster. Look west after sunset and you
    can share the ongoing conjunction with skygazers around the world.
    Taken on April 2, this celestial group photo captures the view from
    Portal, Arizona, USA. Even bright naked-eye Pleiades stars prove to be
    much fainter than Venus though. Apparent in deeper telescopic images,
    the cluster's dusty surroundings and familiar bluish reflection nebulae
    aren't quite visible, while brighter Venus itself is almost
    overwhelming in the single exposure. And while Venus and the Sisters do
    look a little star-crossed, their spiky appearance is the diffraction
    pattern caused by multiple leaves in the aperture of the telephoto
    lens. The last similar conjunction of Venus and Pleiades occurred
    nearly 8 years ago.

    Tomorrow's picture: color the universe
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, April 05, 2020 00:25:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 5

    Color the Universe
    Image Credit: Unknown

    Explanation: Wouldn't it be fun to color in the universe? If you think
    so, please accept this famous astronomical illustration as a
    preliminary substitute. You, your friends, your parents or children,
    can print it out or even color it digitally. While coloring, you might
    be interested to know that even though this illustration has appeared
    in numerous places over the past 100 years, the actual artist remains
    unknown. Furthermore, the work has no accepted name -- can you think of
    a good one? The illustration, first appearing in a book by Camille
    Flammarion in 1888, is used frequently to show that humanity's present
    concepts are susceptible to being supplanted by greater truths.

    Tomorrow's picture: hubble spiral
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, April 06, 2020 00:12:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 6

    NGC 1672: Barred Spiral Galaxy from Hubble
    Image Credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA, ESA; Processing & Copyright:
    Daniel Nobre

    Explanation: Many spiral galaxies have bars across their centers. Even
    our own Milky Way Galaxy is thought to have a modest central bar.
    Prominently barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, featured here, was captured
    in spectacular detail in an image taken by the orbiting Hubble Space
    Telescope. Visible are dark filamentary dust lanes, young clusters of
    bright blue stars, red emission nebulas of glowing hydrogen gas, a long
    bright bar of stars across the center, and a bright active nucleus that
    likely houses a supermassive black hole. Light takes about 60 million
    years to reach us from NGC 1672, which spans about 75,000 light years
    across. NGC 1672, which appears toward the constellation of the
    Dolphinfish (Dorado), has been studied to find out how a spiral bar
    contributes to star formation in a galaxy's central regions.

    Notable APOD Submissions: Gallery of Venus passing in front of the
    Pleiades
    Tomorrow's picture: northerly
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, April 07, 2020 00:28:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 7

    A Path North
    Image Credit & Copyright: Mario Konang

    Explanation: What happens if you keep going north? The direction north
    on the Earth, the place on your horizon below the northern spin pole of
    the Earth -- around which other stars appear to slowly swirl, will
    remain the same. This spin-pole-of-the-north will never move from its
    fixed location on the sky -- night or day -- and its height will always
    match your latitude. The further north you go, the higher the north
    spin pole will appear. Eventually, if you can reach the Earth's North
    Pole, the stars will circle a point directly over your head. Pictured,
    a four-hour long stack of images shows stars trailing in circles around
    this north celestial pole. The bright star near the north celestial
    pole is Polaris, known as the North Star. The bright path was created
    by the astrophotographer's headlamp as he zigzagged up a hill just over
    a week ago in Lower Saxony, Germany. The astrophotographer can be seen,
    at times, in shadow. Actually, the Earth has two spin poles -- and much
    the same would happen if you started below the Earth's equator and went
    south.

    Tomorrow's picture: contrasting skies
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, April 09, 2020 00:07:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 9

    A Flow of Time
    Image Credit & Copyright: Paul Schmit

    Explanation: This surreal timelapse, landscape, panorama spans predawn,
    blue hour, and sunrise skies. Close to the start of planet Earth's
    northern hemisphere spring, the flow of time was captured between 4:30
    and 7:00 am from a location overlooking northern New Mexico's Rio
    Grande Valley. In tracked images of the night sky just before twilight
    begins, the Milky Way is cast across the southern (right) edge of the
    panoramic frame. Toward the east, a range of short and long exposures
    resolves the changing brightness as the Sun rises over the distant
    peaks of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. In between, exposures made
    during the spring morning's tantalizing blue hour are used to blend the
    night sky and sunrise over the high desert landscape.

    Tomorrow's picture: a full moon of northern spring
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, April 10, 2020 00:17:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 10

    Full Moon of Spring
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jeff Dai (TWAN)

    Explanation: From home this Full Moon looked bright. Around our fair
    planet it rose as the Sun set on April 7/8, the first Full Moon after
    the vernal equinox and the start of northern hemisphere spring. April's
    full lunar phase was also near perigee, the closest point in the Moon's
    elliptical orbit. In fact, it was nearer perigee than any other Full
    Moon of 2020 making it the brightest Full Moon of the year. To create
    the visual experience a range of exposures were blended to capture the
    emerging foreground foliage and bright lunar disk. The hopefull image
    of spring was recorded from a home garden in skies over Chongqing,
    China.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, April 11, 2020 00:03:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 11

    Venus and the Pleiades in April
    Image Credit & Copyright: Antonio Finazzi

    Explanation: Shared around world in early April skies Venus, our
    brilliant evening star, wandered across the face of the lovely Pleiades
    star cluster. This timelapse image follows the path of the inner planet
    during the beautiful conjunction showing its daily approach to the
    stars of the Seven Sisters. From a composite of tracked exposures made
    with a telephoto lens, the field of view is also appropriate for
    binocular equipped skygazers. While the star cluster and planet were
    easily seen with the naked-eye, the spiky appearance of our sister
    planet in the picture is the result of a diffraction pattern produced
    by the camera's lens. All images were taken from a home garden in
    Chiuduno, Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy, fortunate in good weather and clear
    spring nights.

    Notable APOD Submissions: Gallery of Venus passing in front of the
    Pleiades
    Tomorrow's picture: a horse of a different color
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, April 12, 2020 00:16:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 12

    The Horsehead Nebula in Infrared from Hubble
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

    Explanation: While drifting through the cosmos, a magnificent
    interstellar dust cloud became sculpted by stellar winds and radiation
    to assume a recognizable shape. Fittingly named the Horsehead Nebula,
    it is embedded in the vast and complex Orion Nebula (M42). A
    potentially rewarding but difficult object to view personally with a
    small telescope, the above gorgeously detailed image was taken in 2013
    in infrared light by the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope in honor of
    the 23rd anniversary of Hubble's launch. The dark molecular cloud,
    roughly 1,500 light years distant, is cataloged as Barnard 33 and is
    seen above primarily because it is backlit by the nearby massive star
    Sigma Orionis. The Horsehead Nebula will slowly shift its apparent
    shape over the next few million years and will eventually be destroyed
    by the high energy starlight.

    April: (AWB's) Global Astronomy Month
    Tomorrow's picture: strangely placed stone
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, April 13, 2020 00:10:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 13

    A Sailing Stone across Death Valley
    Image Credit: Keith Burke

    Explanation: How did this big rock end up on this strange terrain? One
    of the more unusual places here on Earth occurs inside Death Valley,
    California, USA. There a dried lakebed named Racetrack Playa exists
    that is almost perfectly flat, with the odd exception of some very
    large stones, one of which is pictured here in April of 2019 beneath a
    dark, Milky-Way filled sky. Now the flatness and texture of large playa
    like Racetrack are fascinating but not scientifically puzzling -- they
    are caused by mud flowing, drying, and cracking after a heavy rain.
    Only recently, however, has a viable scientific hypothesis been given
    to explain how heavy sailing stones end up near the middle of such a
    large flat surface. Unfortunately, as frequently happens in science, a
    seemingly surreal problem ends up having a relatively mundane solution.
    It turns out that in winter thin ice sheets form, and winds push ice
    sections laden with even heavy rocks across the temporarily slick playa
    when sunlight melts the ice.

    Tomorrow's picture: garbled galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, April 14, 2020 00:08:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 14

    NGC 253: The Silver Coin Galaxy
    Image Credit: NOAJ: Subaru, NASA & ESA: Hubble, ESO: VLT & Danish
    1.5-m;
    Processing & Copyright: Robert Gendler & Roberto Colombari

    Explanation: NGC 253 is one of the brightest spiral galaxies visible,
    but also one of the dustiest. Dubbed the Silver Coin for its appearance
    in smalltelescopes, it is more formally known as the Sculptor Galaxy
    for its location within the boundaries of the southern constellation
    Sculptor. Discovered in 1783 by mathematician and astronomer Caroline
    Herschel, the dusty island universe lies a mere 10 million light-years
    away. About 70 thousand light-years across, NGC 253, pictured, is the
    largest member of the Sculptor Group of Galaxies, the nearest to our
    own Local Group of galaxies. In addition to its spiral dust lanes,
    tendrils of dust seem to be rising from a galactic disk laced with
    young star clusters and star forming regions in this sharp color image.
    The high dust content accompanies frantic star formation, earning NGC
    253 the designation of a starburst galaxy. NGC 253 is also known to be
    a strong source of high-energy x-rays and gamma rays, likely due to
    massive black holes near the galaxy's center. Take a trip through
    extragalactic space in this short video flyby of NGC 253.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,100+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: triple play MVP
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, April 15, 2020 00:39:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 15

    A Cosmic Triangle
    Image Credit & Copyright: Scott Aspinall

    Explanation: It was an astronomical triple play. Setting on the left,
    just after sunset near the end of last month, was our Moon -- showing a
    bright crescent phase. Setting on the right was Venus, the brightest
    planet in the evening sky last month -- and this month, too. With a
    small telescope, you could tell that Venus' phase was half, meaning
    that only half of the planet, as visible from Earth, was exposed to
    direct sunlight and brightly lit. High above and much further in the
    distance was the Pleiades star cluster. Although the Moon and Venus
    move with respect to the background stars, the Pleiades do not --
    because they are background stars. In the beginning of this month,
    Venus appeared to move right in front of the Pleiades, a rare event
    that happens only once every eight years. The featured image captured
    this cosmic triangle with a series of exposures taken from the same
    camera over 70 minutes near Avonlea, Saskatchewan, Canada. The
    positions of the celestial objects was predicted. The only thing
    unpredicted was the existence of the foreground tree -- and the
    astrophotographer is still unsure what type of tree that is.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, April 16, 2020 01:04:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 16

    Comet ATLAS Breaks Up
    Image Credit & Copyright: Milen Minev (Bulgarian Inst. of Astronomy and
    NAO Rozhen), Velimir Popov, Emil Ivanov (Irida Observatory)

    Explanation: Cruising through the inner solar system, Comet ATLAS
    C2019/Y4 has apparently fragmented. Multiple separate condensations
    within its diffuse coma are visible in this telescopic close-up from
    April 12, composed of frames tracking the comet's motion against
    trailing background stars. Discovered at the end of December 2019, this
    comet ATLAS showed a remarkably rapid increase in brightness in late
    March. Northern hemisphere comet watchers held out hope that it would
    become a bright nake-eye comet as it came closer to Earth in late April
    and May. But fragmenting ATLAS is slowly fading in northern skies. The
    breakup of comets is not uncommon though. This comet ATLAS is in an
    orbit similar to the Great Comet of 1844 (C/1844 Y1) and both may be
    fragments of a single larger comet.

    Tomorrow's picture: The Starmill
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, April 17, 2020 00:15:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 17

    The Windmill and the Star Trails
    Image Credit & Copyright: Antonio Gonzalez

    Explanation: Stars can't turn these old wooden arms, but it does look
    like they might in this scene from a rotating planet. The well-composed
    night skyscape was recorded from Garafia, a municipality on the island
    of La Palma, Canary Islands, planet Earth. The center of the once
    working windmill, retired since 1953, is lined-up with the north
    celestial pole, the planet's rotation axis projected on to the northern
    sky. From a camera fixed to a tripod, the star trails are a reflection
    of the planet's rotation traced in a digital composite of 39 sequential
    exposures each 25 seconds long. Brought out by highlighting the final
    exposure in the sequence, the stars themselves appear at the ends of
    their short concentric arcs. A faint band of winter's Milky Way and
    even a diffuse glow from our neighboring Andromeda Galaxy also shine in
    the night.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, April 18, 2020 00:24:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 18

    Just Another Day on Aerosol Earth
    Model Visualization Credit: NASA Earth Observatory, GEOS FP, Joshua
    Stevens

    Explanation: It was just another day on aerosol Earth. For August 23,
    2018, the identification and distribution of aerosols in the Earth's
    atmosphere is shown in this dramatic, planet-wide digital
    visualization. Produced in real time, the Goddard Earth Observing
    System Forward Processing (GEOS FP) model relies on a combination of
    Earth-observing satellite and ground-based data to calculate the
    presence of types of aerosols, tiny solid particles and liquid
    droplets, as they circulate above the entire planet. This August 23rd
    model shows black carbon particles in red from combustion processes,
    like smoke from the fires in the United States and Canada, spreading
    across large stretches of North America and Africa. Sea salt aerosols
    are in blue, swirling above threatening typhoons near South Korea and
    Japan, and the hurricane looming near Hawaii. Dust shown in purple hues
    is blowing over African and Asian deserts. The location of cities and
    towns can be found from the concentrations of lights based on satellite
    image data of the Earth at night.

    Celebrate: Earth Day at Home
    Tomorrow's picture: Saturnday Sunday
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, April 21, 2020 00:22:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 21

    Eye on the Milky Way
    Image Credit & Copyright: Miguel Claro (TWAN, Dark Sky Alqueva)

    Explanation: Have you ever had stars in your eyes? It appears that the
    eye on the left does, and moreover it appears to be gazing at even more
    stars. The featured 27-frame mosaic was taken last July from Ojas de
    Salar in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The eye is actually a small
    lagoon captured reflecting the dark night sky as the Milky Way Galaxy
    arched overhead. The seemingly smooth band of the Milky Way is really
    composed of billions of stars, but decorated with filaments of
    light-absorbing dust and red-glowing nebulas. Additionally, both
    Jupiter (slightly left the galactic arch) and Saturn (slightly to the
    right) are visible. The lights of small towns dot the unusual vertical
    horizon. The rocky terrain around the lagoon appears to some more like
    the surface of Mars than our Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: earth day
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, April 22, 2020 00:15:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 22

    Planet Earth at Twilight
    Image Credit: ISS Expedition 2 Crew, Gateway to Astronaut Photography
    of Earth, NASA

    Explanation: No sudden, sharp boundary marks the passage of day into
    night in this gorgeous view of ocean and clouds over our fair planet
    Earth. Instead, the shadow line or terminator is diffuse and shows the
    gradual transition to darkness we experience as twilight. With the Sun
    illuminating the scene from the right, the cloud tops reflect gently
    reddened sunlight filtered through the dusty troposphere, the lowest
    layer of the planet's nurturing atmosphere. A clear high altitude
    layer, visible along the dayside's upper edge, scatters blue sunlight
    and fades into the blackness of space. This picture was taken in June
    of 2001 from the International Space Station orbiting at an altitude of
    211 nautical miles. Of course from home, you can check out the Earth
    Now.

    Celebrate: Today is Earth Day
    Tomorrow's picture: Planet Earth at Night
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, April 23, 2020 00:48:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 23

    Lyrid Meteor Streak
    Image Credit & Copyright: Zolt Levay

    Explanation: Earth's annual Lyrid Meteor Shower peaked before dawn
    yesterday, as our fair planet plowed through debris from the tail of
    long-period comet Thatcher. In crisp, clear and moonless predawn skies
    over Brown County, Indiana this streak of vaporizing comet dust briefly
    shared a telephoto field of view with stars and nebulae along the Milky
    Way. Alpha star of the constellation Cygnus, Deneb lies near the bright
    meteor's path along with the region's dark interstellar clouds of dust
    and the recognizable glow of the North America nebula (NGC 7000). The
    meteor's streak points back to the shower's radiant, its apparent point
    of origin on the sky. That would be in the constellation Lyra, near
    bright star Vega and off the top edge of the frame.

    Celebrate the Night: International Dark Sky Week
    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, April 24, 2020 00:49:54
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 24

    Around the World at Night
    Video Credit & Copyright: Jeff Dai (TWAN, IDA), Music: Peter Jeremias

    Explanation: Watch this video. In only a minute or so you can explore
    the night skies around planet Earth through a compilation of stunning
    timelapse sequences. The presentation will take you to sites in the
    United States, Germany, Russia, Iran, Nepal, Thailand, Laos and China.
    You might even catch the view from a small island in the southeastern
    Pacific Ocean. But remember that while you're home tonight, the night
    sky will come to you. Look up and celebrate the night during this
    International Dark Sky Week.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, April 26, 2020 00:12:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 26

    Edwin Hubble Discovers the Universe
    Image Credit & Copyright: Courtesy Carnegie Institution for Science

    Explanation: How big is our universe? This very question, among others,
    was debated by two leading astronomers 100 years ago today in what has
    become known as astronomy's Great Debate. Many astronomers then
    believed that our Milky Way Galaxy was the entire universe. Many
    others, though, believed that our galaxy was just one of many. In the
    Great Debate, each argument was detailed, but no consensus was reached.
    The answer came over three years later with the detected variation of
    single spot in the Andromeda Nebula, as shown on the original glass
    discovery plate digitally reproduced here. When Edwin Hubble compared
    images, he noticed that this spot varied, and so wrote "VAR!" on the
    plate. The best explanation, Hubble knew, was that this spot was the
    image of a variable star that was very far away. So M31 was really the
    Andromeda Galaxy -- a galaxy possibly similar to our own. The featured
    image may not be pretty, but the variable spot on it opened a door
    through which humanity gazed knowingly, for the first time, into a
    surprisingly vast cosmos.

    Centennial Celebration: Astronomy's Great Debate was 100 Years Ago
    Today
    Tomorrow's picture: Another Great Debate?
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, April 27, 2020 00:41:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 27

    Fresh Tiger Stripes on Saturn's Enceladus
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, JPL, SSI, Cassini Imaging Team

    Explanation: How will humanity first learn of extraterrestrial life?
    One possibility is to find it under the icy surface of Saturn's moon
    Enceladus. A reason to think that life may exist there are long
    features -- dubbed tiger stripes -- that are known to be spewing ice
    from the moon's icy interior into space. These surface cracks create
    clouds of fine ice particles over the moon's South Pole and create
    Saturn's mysterious E-ring. Evidence for this has come from the robot
    Cassini spacecraft that orbited Saturn from 2004 to 2017. Pictured
    here, a high resolution image of Enceladus is shown from a close flyby.
    The unusual surface tiger stripes are shown in false-color blue. Why
    Enceladus is active remains a mystery, as the neighboring moon Mimas,
    approximately the same size, appears quite dead. A recent analysis of
    ejected ice grains has yielded evidence that complex organic molecules
    exist inside Enceladus. These large carbon-rich molecules bolster --
    but do not prove -- that oceans under Enceladus' surface could contain
    life. Another Solar System moon that might contain underground life is
    Europa.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover ET life?
    Tomorrow's picture: an almost solar system
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, April 28, 2020 00:11:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 28

    The Kepler-90 Planetary System
    Illustration Credit: NASA Ames, Wendy Stenzel

    Explanation: Do other stars have planetary systems like our own? Yes --
    one such system is Kepler-90. Cataloged by the Kepler satellite that
    operated from Earth orbit between 2009 and 2018, eight planets were
    discovered, giving Kepler-90 the same number of known planets as our
    Solar System. Similarities between Kepler-90 and our system include a
    G-type star comparable to our Sun, rocky planets comparable to our
    Earth, and large planets comparable in size to Jupiter and Saturn.
    Differences include that all of the known Kepler-90 planets orbit
    relatively close in -- closer than Earth's orbit around the Sun --
    making them possibly too hot to harbor life. However, observations over
    longer time periods may discover cooler planets further out. Kepler-90
    lies about 2,500 light years away, and at magnitude 14 is visible with
    a medium-sized telescope toward the constellation of the Dragon
    (Draco). The exoplanet-finding mission TESS was launched in 2018, while
    missions with exoplanet finding capability planned for launch in the
    next decade include NASA's JWST and WFIRST.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, April 29, 2020 00:30:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 29

    The Ion Tail of New Comet SWAN
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gerald Rhemann

    Explanation: Newly discovered Comet SWAN has already developed an
    impressive tail. The comet came in from the outer Solar System and has
    just passed inside the orbit of the Earth. Officially designated C/2020
    F8 (SWAN), this outgassing interplanetary iceberg will pass its closest
    to the Earth on May 13, and closest to the Sun on May 27. The comet was
    first noticed in late March by an astronomy enthusiast looking through
    images taken by NASA's Sun-orbiting SOHO spacecraft, and is named for
    this spacecraft's Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) camera. The featured
    image, taken from the dark skies in Namibia in mid-April, captured
    Comet SWAN's green-glowing coma and unexpectedly long, detailed, and
    blue ion-tail. Although the brightness of comets are notoriously hard
    to predict, some models have Comet SWAN becoming bright enough to see
    with the unaided eye during June.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, April 30, 2020 00:29:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 April 30

    Andromeda Island Universe
    Image Credit & Copyright: Yuzhe Xiao

    Explanation: The most distant object easily visible to the unaided eye
    is M31, the great Andromeda Galaxy some two and a half million
    light-years away. But without a telescope, even this immense spiral
    galaxy - spanning over 200,000 light years - appears as a faint,
    nebulous cloud in the constellation Andromeda. In contrast, a bright
    yellow nucleus, dark winding dust lanes, expansive blue spiral arms and
    star clusters are recorded in this stunning telescopic image. While
    even casual skygazers are now inspired by the knowledge that there are
    many distant galaxies like M31, astronomers debated this fundamental
    concept 100 years ago. Were these "spiral nebulae" simply outlying
    components of our own Milky Way Galaxy or were they instead "island
    universes", distant systems of stars comparable to the Milky Way
    itself? This question was central to the famous Shapley-Curtis debate
    of 1920, which was later resolved by observations of M31 in favor of
    Andromeda, island universe.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: galaxies away
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, May 01, 2020 00:33:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 1

    A View Toward M106
    Image Credit & Copyright: Joonhwa Lee

    Explanation: Big, bright, beautiful spiral, Messier 106 dominates this
    cosmic vista. The nearly two degree wide telescopic field of view looks
    toward the well-trained constellation Canes Venatici, near the handle
    of the Big Dipper. Also known as NGC 4258, M106 is about 80,000
    light-years across and 23.5 million light-years away, the largest
    member of the Canes II galaxy group. For a far far away galaxy, the
    distance to M106 is well-known in part because it can be directly
    measured by tracking this galaxy's remarkable maser, or microwave laser
    emission. Very rare but naturally occurring, the maser emission is
    produced by water molecules in molecular clouds orbiting its active
    galactic nucleus. Another prominent spiral galaxy on the scene, viewed
    nearly edge-on, is NGC 4217 below and right of M106. The distance to
    NGC 4217 is much less well-known, estimated to be about 60 million
    light-years, but the bright spiky stars are in the foreground, well
    inside our own Milky Way galaxy. Even the existence of galaxies beyond
    the Milky Way was questioned 100 years ago in astronomy's Great Debate.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, May 02, 2020 00:06:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 2

    Radio, The Big Ear, and the Wow! Signal
    Image Credit & Copyright: Rick Scott

    Explanation: Since the early days of radio and television we have been
    freely broadcasting signals into space. For some time now, we have been
    listening too. A large radio telescope at Ohio State University known
    as affectionately The Big Ear was one of the first listeners. The Big
    Ear was about the size of three football fields and consisted of an
    immense metal ground plane with two fence-like reflectors, one fixed
    and one tiltable. It relied on the Earth's rotation to help scan the
    sky. This photo, taken by former Big Ear student volunteer Rick Scott,
    looks out across the ground plane toward the fixed reflector with the
    radio frequency receiver horns in the foreground. Starting in 1965, the
    Big Ear was used in an ambitious survey of the radio sky. In the 1970s,
    it became the first telescope to continuously listen for signals from
    extraterrestrial civilizations. For an exciting moment during August
    1977 a very strong, unexpected signal, dubbed the Wow! Signal, was
    detected by the Big Ear. But alas, heard only once, the source of the
    signal could not be determined. In May 1998 the final pieces of the Big
    Ear were torn down.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: a message from Earth
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, May 03, 2020 00:05:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 3

    A Message from Earth
    Image Credit: Frank Drake (UCSC) et al., Arecibo Observatory (Cornell
    U.);
    License: Arne Nordmann (Wikimedia)

    Explanation: What are these Earthlings trying to tell us? The featured
    message was broadcast from Earth towards the globular star cluster M13
    in 1974. During the dedication of the Arecibo Observatory - still one
    of the largest single radio telescopes in the world - a string of 1's
    and 0's representing the diagram was sent. This attempt at
    extraterrestrial communication was mostly ceremonial - humanity
    regularly broadcasts radio and television signals out into space
    accidentally. Even were this message received, M13 is so far away we
    would have to wait almost 50,000 years to hear an answer. The featured
    message gives a few simple facts about humanity and its knowledge: from
    left to right are numbers from one to ten, atoms including hydrogen and
    carbon, some interesting molecules, DNA, a human with description,
    basics of our Solar System, and basics of the sending telescope.
    Several searches for extraterrestrial intelligence are currently
    underway, including one where you can use your own home computer.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover ET life?
    Tomorrow's picture: passing earth
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, May 04, 2020 00:09:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 4

    Earth Flyby of BepiColombo
    Image Credit & License: ESA, BepiColombo, MTM

    Explanation: What it would look like to approach planet Earth? Such an
    event was recorded visually in great detail by ESA's and JAXA's robotic
    BepiColombo spacecraft last month as it swung back past Earth on its
    journey in to the planet Mercury. Earth can be seen rotating on
    approach as it comes out from behind the spacecraft's high-gain antenna
    in this nearly 10-hour time-lapse video. The Earth is so bright that no
    background stars are visible. Launched in 2018, the robotic BepiColombo
    used the gravity of Earth to adjust its course, the first of nine
    planetary flybys over the next seven years -- but the only one
    involving Earth. Scheduled to enter orbit in 2025, BepiColombo will
    take images and data of the surface and magnetic field of Mercury in an
    effort to better understand the early evolution of our Solar System and
    its innermost planet.

    New: APOD now available through Instagram in Portuguese
    Tomorrow's picture: carina perspective
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, May 06, 2020 02:08:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 6

    LDN 1471: A Windblown Star Cavity
    Image Credit: Hubble, NASA, ESA; Processing & License: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: What is the cause of this unusual parabolic structure?
    This illuminated cavity, known as LDN 1471, was created by a newly
    forming star, seen as the bright source at the peak of the parabola.
    This protostar is experiencing a stellar outflow which is then
    interacting with the surrounding material in the Perseus Molecular
    Cloud, causing it to brighten. We see only one side of the cavity --
    the other side is hidden by dark dust. The parabolic shape is caused by
    the widening of the stellar-wind blown cavity over time. Two additional
    structures can also be seen either side of the protostar, these are
    known as Herbig-Haro objects, again caused by the interaction of the
    outflow with the surrounding material. What causes the striations on
    the cavity walls, though, remains unknown. The featured image was taken
    by NASA and ESA's Hubble Space Telescope after an original detection by
    the Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, May 07, 2020 01:04:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 7

    Analemma of the Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gyorgy Soponyai

    Explanation: An analemma is that figure-8 curve you get when you mark
    the position of the Sun at the same time each day for one year. But the
    trick to imaging an analemma of the Moon is to wait bit longer. On
    average the Moon returns to the same position in the sky about 50
    minutes and 29 seconds later each day. So photograph the Moon 50
    minutes 29 seconds later on successive days. Over one lunation or lunar
    month it will trace out an analemma-like curve as the Moon's actual
    position wanders due to its tilted and elliptical orbit. To create this
    composite image of a lunar analemma, astronomer Gyorgy Soponyai chose a
    lunar month from March 26 to April 18 with a good stretch of weather
    and a site close to home near Mogyorod, Hungary. Crescent lunar phases
    too thin and faint to capture around the New Moon are missing though.
    Facing southwest, the lights of Budapest are in the distance of the
    base image taken on March 27.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, May 09, 2020 02:43:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 9

    Full Flower Moonrise
    Image Credit & Copyright: Tiziano Boldrini

    Explanation: Rising as the Sun set, the Moon was bright and full in
    planet Earth skies on May 7 and known to some as a Flower Moon. Near
    the horizon it does seem to take on rose pink hues of reddened sunlight
    in this reflective twilight scene. In fact one of the brighter Full
    Moons of the year, this month's full lunar phase occurred within about
    32 hours of perigee. That's the closest point in the Moon's elliptical
    orbit. Flooded field and ruined church tower are near the municipality
    of Casaleggio Novara, Piedmont Region of northern Italy.

    Tomorrow's picture: peculiar galaxies
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, May 10, 2020 00:16:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 10

    The Porpoise Galaxy from Hubble
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, HLA; Reprocessing & Copyright: Raul
    Villaverde

    Explanation: What's happening to this spiral galaxy? Just a few hundred
    million years ago, NGC 2936, the upper of the two large galaxies shown,
    was likely a normal spiral galaxy -- spinning, creating stars -- and
    minding its own business. But then it got too close to the massive
    elliptical galaxy NGC 2937 below and took a dive. Dubbed the Porpoise
    Galaxy for its iconic shape, NGC 2936 is not only being deflected but
    also being distorted by the close gravitational interaction. A burst of
    young blue stars forms the nose of the porpoise toward the right of the
    upper galaxy, while the center of the spiral appears as an eye.
    Alternatively, the galaxy pair, together known as Arp 142, look to some
    like a penguin protecting an egg. Either way, intricate dark dust lanes
    and bright blue star streams trail the troubled galaxy to the lower
    right. The featured re-processed image showing Arp 142 in unprecedented
    detail was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope last year. Arp 142 lies
    about 300 million light years away toward the constellation,
    coincidently, of the Water Snake (Hydra). In a billion years or so the
    two galaxies will likely merge into one larger galaxy.

    Tomorrow's picture: behind betelgeuse
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, May 11, 2020 01:05:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 11

    Behind Betelgeuse
    Image Credit & Copyright: Adam Block, Steward Observatory, University
    of Arizona

    Explanation: What's behind Betelgeuse? One of the brighter and more
    unusual stars in the sky, the red supergiant star Betelgeuse can be
    found in the direction of famous constellation Orion. Betelgeuse,
    however, is actually well in front of many of the constellation's other
    bright stars, and also in front of the greater Orion Molecular Cloud
    Complex. Numerically, light takes about 700 years to reach us from
    Betelgeuse, but about 1,300 years to reach us from the Orion Nebula and
    its surrounding dust and gas. All but the largest telescopes see
    Betelgeuse as only a point of light, but a point so bright that the
    inherent blurriness created by the telescope and Earth's atmosphere
    make it seem extended. In the featured long-exposure image, thousands
    of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy can be seen in the background behind
    Betelgeuse, as well as dark dust from the Orion Molecular Cloud, and
    some red-glowing emission from hydrogen gas on the outskirts of the
    more distant Lambda Orionis Ring. Betelgeuse has recovered from
    appearing unusually dim over the past six months, but is still expected
    to explode in a spectacular supernova sometime in the next (about)
    100,000 years.

    Tomorrow's picture: little harp meteors
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, May 12, 2020 00:05:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 12

    Lyrid Meteors from the Constellation Lyra
    Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horlek

    Explanation: Where are all of these meteors coming from? In terms of
    direction on the sky, the pointed answer is the constellation of Small
    Harp (Lyra). That is why the famous meteor shower that peaks every
    April is known as the Lyrids -- the meteors all appear to came from a
    radiant toward Lyra. In terms of parent body, though, the sand-sized
    debris that makes up the Lyrid meteors come from Comet Thatcher. The
    comet follows a well-defined orbit around our Sun, and the part of the
    orbit that approaches Earth is superposed in front of Lyra. Therefore,
    when Earth crosses this orbit, the radiant point of falling debris
    appears in Lyra. Featured here, a composite image containing over 33
    meteors (can you find them all?) from last month's Lyrid meteor shower
    shows several bright meteors that streaked over a shore of Sec Lake in
    the Czech Republic. Also visible are the bright stars Vega and Altair,
    the planet Jupiter, and the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy.

    Notable APOD Submissions: Lyrid Meteor Shower 2020
    Tomorrow's picture: jupiter IR
    __________________________________________________________________

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    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, May 13, 2020 00:04:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 13

    Jupiter in Infrared from Gemini
    Image Credit: International Gemini Observatory, NOIRLab, NSF, AURA; M.
    H. Wong (UC Berkeley) & Team;
    Acknowledgment: Mahdi Zamani; Text: Alex R. Howe (NASA/USRA, Reader's
    History of SciFi Podcast)

    Explanation: In infrared, Jupiter lights up the night. Recently,
    astronomers at the Gemini North Observatory in Hawaii, USA, created
    some of the best infrared photos of Jupiter ever taken from Earth's
    surface, pictured. Gemini was able to produce such a clear image using
    a technique called lucky imaging, by taking many images and combining
    only the clearest ones that, by chance, were taken when Earth's
    atmosphere was the most calm. Jupiter's jack-o'-lantern-like appearance
    is caused by the planet's different layers of clouds. Infrared light
    can pass through clouds better than visible light, allowing us to see
    deeper, hotter layers of Jupiter's atmosphere, while the thickest
    clouds appear dark. These pictures, together with ones from the Hubble
    Space Telescope and the Juno spacecraft, can tell us a lot about
    weather patterns on Jupiter, like where its massive, planet-sized
    storms form.

    Notable APOD Submissions: Flower Moon 2020
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, May 14, 2020 01:36:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 14

    Comet Halley vs Comet SWAN
    Image Credit & Copyright: Luc Perrot (TWAN)

    Explanation: The pre-dawn hours of May 3rd were moonless as grains of
    cosmic dust streaked through southern skies above Reunion Island. Swept
    up as planet Earth plowed through dusty debris streams left behind
    periodic Comet 1/P Halley, the annual meteor shower is known as the Eta
    Aquarids. This inspired exposure captures a bright aquarid meteor
    flashing left to right over a sea of clouds. The meteor streak points
    back to the shower's radiant in the constellation Aquarius, well above
    the eastern horizon and off the top of the frame. Known for speed Eta
    Aquarid meteors move fast, entering the atmosphere at about 66
    kilometers per second, visible at altitudes of 100 kilometers or so.
    Then about 6 light-minutes from Earth, the pale greenish coma and long
    tail of Comet C/2020 F8 SWAN were not to be left out of the celestial
    scene, posing above the volcanic peaks left of center. Now in the
    northern sky's morning twilight near the eastern horizon Comet SWAN has
    not become as bright as anticipated though. This first time comet made
    its closest approach to planet Earth only two days ago and reaches
    perihelion on May 27.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, May 15, 2020 00:41:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 15

    Galaxy Wars: M81 and M82
    Image Credit & Copyright: Dietmar Hager, Torsten Grossmann

    Explanation: These two galaxies are far far away, 12 million
    light-years distant toward the northern constellation of the Great
    Bear. On the left, with grand spiral arms and bright yellow core is
    spiral galaxy M81, some 100,000 light-years across. On the right marked
    by red gas and dust clouds, is irregular galaxy M82. The pair have been
    locked in gravitational combat for a billion years. Gravity from each
    galaxy has profoundly affected the other during a series of cosmic
    close encounters. Their last go-round lasted about 100 million years
    and likely raised density waves rippling around M81, resulting in the
    richness of M81's spiral arms. M82 was left with violent star forming
    regions and colliding gas clouds so energetic the galaxy glows in
    X-rays. In the next few billion years, their continuing gravitational
    encounters will result in a merger, and a single galaxy will remain.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, May 17, 2020 00:09:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 17

    A Waterspout in Florida
    Image Credit & Copyright: Joey Mole

    Explanation: What's happening over the water? Pictured here is one of
    the better images yet recorded of a waterspout, a type of tornado that
    occurs over water. Waterspouts are spinning columns of rising moist air
    that typically form over warm water. Waterspouts can be as dangerous as
    tornadoes and can feature wind speeds over 200 kilometers per hour.
    Some waterspouts form away from thunderstorms and even during
    relatively fair weather. Waterspouts may be relatively transparent and
    initially visible only by an unusual pattern they create on the water.
    The featured image was taken in 2013 July near Tampa Bay, Florida. The
    Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida is arguably the most active
    area in the world for waterspouts, with hundreds forming each year.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: space reef flyby
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, May 18, 2020 00:28:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 18

    Journey into the Cosmic Reef
    Video Credit: NASA's GSFC, SVS; Lead Producer & Music: Joseph
    DePasquale (STScI)

    Explanation: What would you see if you could fly into the Cosmic Reef?
    The nebular cloud NGC 2014 appear to some like an ocean reef that
    resides in the sky, specifically in the LMC, the largest satellite
    galaxy of our Milky Way Galaxy. A detailed image of this distant nebula
    was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope to help commemorate 30 years of
    investigating the cosmos. Data and images of this cosmic reef have been
    combined into the three-dimensional model flown through in the featured
    video. The computer animated sequence first takes you past a star
    cluster highlighted by bright blue stars, below pillars of gas and dust
    slowly being destroyed by the energetic light and winds emitted by
    these massive stars. Filaments of gas and dust are everywhere, glowing
    in the red light of hydrogen and nitrogen. The animation next takes you
    to the blue-colored nebula NGC 2020, glowing in light emitted by oxygen
    and surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star about 200,000 times brighter than our
    Sun -- a nebula thought to be the ejected outer atmosphere of this
    stellar monster. As the animation concludes, the virtual camera pivots
    to show that NGC 2020 has a familiar hourglass shape when viewed from
    the side.

    Follow APOD on Instagram in: English, Indonesian, Persian, or
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    Tomorrow's picture: NASA posters (free)
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    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, May 19, 2020 00:04:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 19

    Posters of the Solar System
    Image Credit: NASA

    Explanation: Would you like a NASA astronomy-exploration poster? You
    are just one page-print away. Any of the panels you see on the featured
    image can appear on your wall. Moreover, this NASA page has, typically,
    several more posters of each of the Solar System objects depicted.
    These posters highlight many of the places humanity, through NASA, has
    explored in the past 50 years, including our Sun, and planets Mercury,
    Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Moons of
    Jupiter that have been posterized include Europe, Ganymede, Callisto,
    and Io, while moons of Saturn that can be framed include Enceladus and
    Titan. Images of Pluto, Ceres, comets and asteroids are also presented,
    while six deep space scenes -- well beyond our Solar System -- can also
    be prominently displayed. If you lack wall space or blank poster sheets
    don't despair -- you can still print many of these out as trading
    cards.

    Tomorrow's picture: planet line up
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, May 20, 2020 01:52:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 20

    Moon, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter, Milk Way
    Image Credit & Copyright: Mihail Minkov

    Explanation: It is not a coincidence that planets line up. That's
    because all of the planets orbit the Sun in (nearly) a single sheet
    called the plane of the ecliptic. When viewed from inside that plane --
    as Earth dwellers are likely to do -- the planets all appear confined
    to a single band. It is a coincidence, though, when three of the
    brightest planets all appear in nearly the same direction. Such a
    coincidence was captured about a month ago. Featured above, Earth's
    Moon, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter were all imaged together, just before
    sunrise, from the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. A second band is visible
    diagonally across this image -- the central band of our Milky Way
    Galaxy. If you wake up early, you will find that these same planets
    remain visible in the morning sky this month, too.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,100+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, May 21, 2020 00:03:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 21

    Phases of Venus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Richard Addis

    Explanation: Just as the Moon goes through phases, Venus' visible
    sunlit hemisphere waxes and wanes. This composite of backyard
    telescopic images illustrates the steady changes for Venus during its
    current stint as our evening star, as the inner planet grows larger but
    narrows to a thin crescent. Images from bottom to top were taken during
    2020 on dates February 27, March 20, April 14, April 24, May 8, and May
    14. Gliding along its interior orbit between Earth and Sun, Venus grows
    larger during that period because it is approaching planet Earth. Its
    crescent narrows, though, as Venus swings closer to our line-of-sight
    to the Sun. Closest to the Earth-Sun line but passing about 1/2 degree
    north of the Sun on June 3, Venus will reach a (non-judgmental)
    inferior conjunction. Soon after, Venus will shine clearly above the
    eastern horizon in predawn skies as planet Earth's morning star. After
    sunset tonight look for Venus above the western horizon and you can
    also spot elusive innermost planet Mercury.

    Tomorrow's picture: South Carina
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, May 23, 2020 01:31:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 23

    Ghost Fungus to Magellanic Cloud
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gill Fry

    Explanation: Stars shine and satellites glint in this clear, dark,
    night sky over Wannon Falls Reserve, South West Victoria, Australia. In
    fact the fuzzy, faint apparition above the tree tops is the only cloud
    visible, also known as the Large Magellanic Cloud, satellite galaxy of
    our own Milky Way. In the foreground, an Omphalotus nidiformis (ghost
    fungus) from planet Earth shines with a surprisingly bright
    bioluminescence. Like the Magellanic cloud, the ghost fungus was easily
    seen with the eye. Its ghostly glow was actually a dull green, but it
    appears bright green in digital camera picture. Two images were blended
    to create the scene. One focused on the distant stars and Large
    Magellanic Cloud some 160,000 light-years away. Another was focused on
    the foreground and glowing fungus several light-nanoseconds from the
    camera lens.

    Tomorrow's picture: the grand canyon of Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, May 24, 2020 00:12:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 24

    Valles Marineris: The Grand Canyon of Mars
    Image Credit: NASA, USGS, Viking Project

    Explanation: The largest canyon in the Solar System cuts a wide swath
    across the face of Mars. Named Valles Marineris, the grand valley
    extends over 3,000 kilometers long, spans as much as 600 kilometers
    across, and delves as much as 8 kilometers deep. By comparison, the
    Earth's Grand Canyon in Arizona, USA is 800 kilometers long, 30
    kilometers across, and 1.8 kilometers deep. The origin of the Valles
    Marineris remains unknown, although a leading hypothesis holds that it
    started as a crack billions of years ago as the planet cooled. Several
    geologic processes have been identified in the canyon. The featured
    mosaic was created from over 100 images of Mars taken by Viking
    Orbiters in the 1970s.

    Tomorrow's picture: interstellar monster
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, May 25, 2020 00:49:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 25

    Mystic Mountain Monster being Destroyed
    Image Credit: Hubble, NASA, ESA; Processing & License: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: Inside the head of this interstellar monster is a star
    that is slowly destroying it. The huge monster, actually an inanimate
    series of pillars of gas and dust, measures light years in length. The
    in-head star is not itself visible through the opaque interstellar dust
    but is bursting out partly by ejecting opposing beams of energetic
    particles called Herbig-Haro jets. Located about 7,500 light years away
    in the Carina Nebula and known informally as Mystic Mountain, the
    appearance of these pillars is dominated by dark dust even though they
    are composed mostly of clear hydrogen gas. The featured image was taken
    with the Hubble Space Telescope. All over these pillars, the energetic
    light and winds from massive newly formed stars are evaporating and
    dispersing the dusty stellar nurseries in which they formed. Within a
    few million years, the head of this giant, as well as most of its body,
    will have been completely evaporated by internal and surrounding stars.

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    Tomorrow's picture: Higher than the Himalayas
    __________________________________________________________________

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    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, May 26, 2020 00:41:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 26

    The Milky Way over Snow-Capped Himalayas
    Image Credit & Copyright: Tomas Havel

    Explanation: What's higher than the Himalayas? Although the Himalayan
    Mountains are the tallest on planet Earth, they don't measure up to the
    Milky Way. Visible above the snow-capped mountains in the featured
    image is the arcing central band of our home galaxy. The bright spot
    just above the central plane is the planet Jupiter, while the brightest
    orange spot on the upper right is the star Antares. The
    astrophotographer braved below-zero temperatures at nearly 4,000-meters
    altitude to take the photographs that compose this image. The featured
    picture is a composite of eight exposures taken with same camera and
    from the same location over three hours, just after sunset, in 2019
    April, from near Bimtang Lake in Nepal. Over much of planet Earth, the
    planets Mercury (faint) and Venus (bright) will be visible this week
    after sunset.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: Earth from Saturn
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, May 27, 2020 01:35:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 27

    Earth and Moon through Saturn's Rings
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, JPL-Caltech, SSI, Cassini Imaging Team;
    Processing & License: Kevin M. Gill

    Explanation: What are those dots between Saturn's rings? Our Earth and
    Moon. Just over three years ago, because the Sun was temporarily
    blocked by the body of Saturn, the robotic Cassini spacecraft was able
    to look toward the inner Solar System. There, it spotted our Earth and
    Moon -- just pin-pricks of light lying about 1.4 billion kilometers
    distant. Toward the right of the featured image is Saturn's A ring,
    with the broad Encke Gap on the far right and the narrower Keeler Gap
    toward the center. On the far left is Saturn's continually changing F
    Ring. From this perspective, the light seen from Saturn's rings was
    scattered mostly forward , and so appeared backlit. After more than a
    decade of exploration and discovery, the Cassini spacecraft ran low on
    fuel in 2017 and was directed to enter Saturn's atmosphere, where it
    surely melted.

    Gallery: Notable Venus & Mercury Conjunction 2020 Images submitted to
    APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, May 28, 2020 01:00:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 28

    Reflecting the International Space Station
    Image Credit & Copyright: Helmut Schnieder

    Explanation: Still bathed in sunlight, the International Space Station
    arced through the evening sky over lake Wulfsahl-Gusborn in northern
    Germany, just after sunset on March 25. The familiar constellation of
    Orion can be seen left of the trail of the orbital station's bright
    passage. On the right, Venus is the brilliant evening star above the
    western horizon. With the camera fixed to a tripod, this scene was
    captured in a series of five exposures. How can you tell? The short
    time delay between the end of one exposure and the beginning of the
    next leaves small gaps in the ISS light trail. Look closely and you'll
    also see that the sky that appears to be above the horizon is actually
    a reflection though. The final image has been vertically inverted and
    the night skyscape recorded in the mirror-like waters of the small
    lake.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, May 29, 2020 00:13:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 29

    Mercury Meets Crescent Venus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Marco Meniero

    Explanation: That's not a bright star and crescent Moon caught between
    branches of a eucalyptus tree. It's Venus in a crescent phase and
    Mercury. Near the western horizon after sunset, the two inner planets
    closely shared this telescopic field of view on May 22, seen from a
    balcony in Civitavecchia, Italy. Venus, the very bright celestial
    beacon, is wandering lower into the evening twilight. It grows larger
    in apparent size and shows a thinner crescent as it heads toward its
    inferior conjunction, positioned between Earth and Sun on June 3.
    Mercury, in a fuller phase, is climbing in the western sky though,
    reaching its maximum angular distance from the Sun on June 4 Still,
    this remarkably close pairing with brilliant Venus made Mercury,
    usually lost in bright twilight skies, easier to spot from planet
    Earth.

    Gallery: Notable Venus & Mercury Conjunction 2020 Images submitted to
    APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, May 30, 2020 00:18:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 30

    Green Flashes: Sun, Moon, Venus, Mercury
    Image Credit & Copyright: Marcella Giulia Pace

    Explanation: Follow a sunset on a clear day against a distant horizon
    and you might glimpse green just as the Sun disappears from view. The
    green flash is caused by refraction of light rays traveling to the eye
    over a long path through the atmosphere. Shorter wavelengths refract
    more strongly than longer redder wavelengths and the separation of
    colors lends a green hue to the last visible vestige of the solar disk.
    It's harder to see a green flash from the Moon, not to mention the
    diminutive disks of Venus and Mercury. But a telescope or telephoto
    lens and camera can help catch this tantalizing result of atmospheric
    refraction when the celestial bodies are near the horizon. From Sicily,
    the top panels were recorded on March 18, 2019 for the Sun and May 8,
    2020 for the Moon. Also from the Mediterranean island, the bottom
    panels were shot during the twilight apparition of Venus and Mercury
    near the western horizon on May 24.

    Tomorrow's picture: green arches
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, May 31, 2020 00:23:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 May 31

    Aurora over Sweden
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gran Strand

    Explanation: It was bright and green and stretched across the sky. This
    striking aurora display was captured in 2016 just outside of stersund,
    Sweden. Six photographic fields were merged to create the featured
    panorama spanning almost 180 degrees. Particularly striking aspects of
    this aurora include its sweeping arc-like shape and its stark
    definition. Lake Storsjn is seen in the foreground, while several
    familiar constellations and the star Polaris are visible through the
    aurora, far in the background. Coincidently, the aurora appears to
    avoid the Moon visible on the lower left. The aurora appeared a day
    after a large hole opened in the Sun's corona allowing particularly
    energetic particles to flow out into the Solar System. The green color
    of the aurora is caused by oxygen atoms recombining with ambient
    electrons high in the Earth's atmosphere.

    Tomorrow's picture: red lagoon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, June 02, 2020 03:09:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 2

    Novel Coronavirus Attacks Humanity
    Image Credit & License: NIAID

    Explanation: Humanity is under attack. The attack is not from large
    tentacle-flailing aliens, but from invaders so small they can barely be
    seen, and so strange they are not even clearly alive. All over planet
    Earth, the human home world, DNA-based humans are being invaded by the
    RNA-based SARS-CoV2. The virus, which creates a disease known as
    COVID-19, specializes in reprogramming human cells into zombies that
    manufacture and release copies of itself. Pictured here is a high
    magnification image of a human cell covered by attacking novel
    coronavirus SARS-CoV2 (orange). Epic battles where two species square
    off in a fight to the death are not unusual on Earth, with several just
    involving humans typically ongoing at any time. Even so, most humans
    are predicted to survive. After several years, humanity expects to win
    this war -- but only after millions of humans have died and trillions
    of coronaviruses have been destroyed.

    Wash your hands: Tips for humans on how to survive this SARS-CoV2
    assault
    Tomorrow's picture: venus nearest
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, June 04, 2020 00:29:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 4

    Portrait of NGC 3628
    Image Credit & Copyright: Stefano Cancelli (1963-2020), Paul Mortfield

    Explanation: Sharp telescopic views of NGC 3628 show a puffy galactic
    disk divided by dark dust lanes. Of course, this deep portrait of the
    magnificent, edge-on spiral galaxy puts some astronomers in mind of its
    popular moniker, the Hamburger Galaxy. It also reveals a small galaxy
    nearby, likely a satellite of NGC 3628, and a faint but extensive tidal
    tail. The drawn out tail stretches for about 300,000 light-years, even
    beyond the right edge of the wide frame. NGC 3628 shares its
    neighborhood in the local universe with two other large spirals M65 and
    M66 in a grouping otherwise known as the Leo Triplet. Gravitational
    interactions with its cosmic neighbors are likely responsible for
    creating the tidal tail, as well as the extended flare and warp of this
    spiral's disk. The tantalizing island universe itself is about 100,000
    light-years across and 35 million light-years away in the northern
    springtime constellation Leo.

    Tomorrow's picture: dragons in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, June 05, 2020 01:16:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 5

    Dragon over Central Park
    Image Credit & Copyright: Stan Honda

    Explanation: Still bathed in sunlight the International Space Station
    (ISS) arced through this Manhattan evening sky on May 30. Moving left
    to right, its bright trail was captured in this composite image with a
    series of 5 second long exposures. Stars left short trails and lights
    were reflected in still waters looking toward the north across the
    Central Park reservoir. Chasing the ISS in low Earth orbit the Crew
    Dragon spacecraft dubbed Endeavour also left a trail through that urban
    night. Seen about 6 hours after its launch the spacecraft's faint trail
    appears above the ISS, shown in the inset just as the two approached
    the bank of clouds at the right. Dragon Endeavour docked successfully
    with the ISS about nineteen hours after reaching orbit.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, June 06, 2020 01:44:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 6

    Comet PanSTARRs and the Galaxies
    Image Credit & Copyright: Dan Bartlett

    Explanation: Comet PanSTARRs, C/2017 T2, shared this stunning
    telescopic field of view with galaxies M81 and M82 on May 22/23. Of
    course, the galaxies were some 12 million light-years distant and the
    comet about 14 light-minutes away, seen in planet Earth's sky toward
    the Big Dipper. A new visitor from the Oort Cloud, this Comet PanSTARRs
    was discovered in 2017 by the PanSTARRs survey telescope when the comet
    was over 1 light-hour from the Sun, almost as distant as the orbit of
    Saturn. With a beautiful coma and dust tail, this comet has been a
    solid northern hemisphere performer for telescope wielding comet
    watchers this May, following its closest approach to the Sun on May 4.
    In this deep image from dark California skies the outbound comet even
    seems to develop a short anti-tail as it leaves the inner Solar System.

    Tomorrow's picture: planetary nebula
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, June 07, 2020 00:48:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 7

    Halo of the Cat's Eye
    Image Credit & Copyright: R. Corradi (Isaac Newton Group), Nordic
    Optical Telescope

    Explanation: The Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC 6543) is one of the best known
    planetary nebulae in the sky. Its haunting symmetries are seen in the
    very central region of this stunning false-color picture, processed to
    reveal the enormous but extremely faint halo of gaseous material, over
    three light-years across, which surrounds the brighter, familiar
    planetary nebula. Made with data from the Nordic Optical Telescope in
    the Canary Islands, the composite picture shows extended emission from
    the nebula. Planetary nebulae have long been appreciated as a final
    phase in the life of a Sun-like star. Only much more recently however,
    have some planetaries been found to have halos like this one, likely
    formed of material shrugged off during earlier active episodes in the
    star's evolution. While the planetary nebula phase is thought to last
    for around 10,000 years, astronomers estimate the age of the outer
    filamentary portions of this halo to be 50,000 to 90,000 years.

    Tomorrow's picture: Venusian sun ring
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, June 09, 2020 00:07:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 9

    Orion over Argentine Mountains
    Image Credit & Copyright: Nicolas Tabbush

    Explanation: Do you recognize the constellation of Orion? It may be
    harder than usual in today's featured image because the camera has
    zoomed in on the center, and the exposure is long enough to enhance
    nebulas beyond what the unaided human eye can see. Still, once you
    become oriented, you can see Orion's three belt stars lined up
    vertically near the image center, and even locate the familiar Orion
    Nebula on the upper left. Famous faint features that are also visible
    include the dark Horsehead Nebula indentation near the image center,
    and the dusty Flame Nebula just to its right. Part of the
    Orion-encircling Barnard's Loop can also be found on the far right. The
    image combines multiple sky-tracking shots of the background in
    different colors with a single static foreground exposure taken at
    twilight -- all captured with the same camera and from the same
    location. The picturesque scene was captured early last year from
    mountains in San Juan, Argentina.

    Tomorrow's picture: milky way's magnetism
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, June 11, 2020 02:25:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 11

    Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300
    Image Credit: Hubble Heritage Team, ESA, NASA

    Explanation: Big, beautiful, barred spiral galaxy NGC 1300 lies some 70
    million light-years away on the banks of the constellation Eridanus.
    This Hubble Space Telescope composite view of the gorgeous island
    universe is one of the largest Hubble images ever made of a complete
    galaxy. NGC 1300 spans over 100,000 light-years and the Hubble image
    reveals striking details of the galaxy's dominant central bar and
    majestic spiral arms. In fact, on close inspection the nucleus of this
    classic barred spiral itself shows a remarkable region of spiral
    structure about 3,000 light-years across. Like other spiral galaxies,
    including our own Milky Way, NGC 1300 is thought to have a supermassive
    central black hole.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, June 13, 2020 01:09:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 13

    SpaceX Demo-2 Launch
    Image Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

    Explanation: Clouds are white but the sky is dark in this snapshot of
    Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center. The dramatic daytime
    sky is partly due to the black and white photo captured with a digital
    camera at near-infrared wavelengths. Taken at 3:22 p.m. EDT Saturday
    May 30 the launch was pretty dramatic too as a Falcon 9 rocket lofted a
    Crew Dragon spacecrat towards low-Earth orbit. Astronauts Robert
    Behnken and Douglas Hurley were onboard, the first crew launched from a
    United States spaceport since the conclusion of the Space Shuttle
    Program in 2011. A few minutes after launch, the Falcon 9 first stage
    returned to land on Of Course I Still Love You (that's an autonomous
    spaceport drone ship ...) patiently waiting off the Florida coast. The
    two astronauts guided their craft to a successfull docking with the
    International Space Station's Harmony module at 10:16 a.m. EDT Sunday
    May 31.

    Tomorrow's picture: the happy dance
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, June 14, 2020 00:23:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 14

    Happy People Dancing on Planet Earth
    Video Credit: Matt Harding & Melissa Nixon; Music: Praan (vocalist:
    Palbasha Siddique) by Gary Schyman

    Explanation: What are these humans doing? Dancing. Many humans on Earth
    exhibit periods of happiness, and one method of displaying happiness is
    dancing. Happiness and dancing transcend national boundaries and occur
    in practically every human society. Above, Matt Harding traveled
    through many nations on Earth, planned on dancing, and filmed the
    result. The featured video, one in a series of similar videos, is
    perhaps a dramatic example that humans from all over planet Earth feel
    a common bond as part of a single species. Happiness is frequently
    contagious -- few people are able to watch the featured video without
    smiling.

    APOD across world languages: Arabic, Catalan, Chinese (Beijing),
    Chinese (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Farsi, French,
    French, German, Hebrew, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Montenegrin,
    Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish and Ukrainian
    Tomorrow's picture: 25 minus 1
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, June 15, 2020 17:40:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 15

    A Ring of Fire Sunrise Solar Eclipse
    Video Credit: Colin Legg & Geoff Sims; Music: Peter Nanasi

    Explanation: What's rising above the horizon behind those clouds? It's
    the Sun. Most sunrises don't look like this, though, because most
    sunrises don't include the Moon. In the early morning of 2013 May 10,
    however, from Western Australia, the Moon was between the Earth and the
    rising Sun. At times, it would be hard for the uninformed to understand
    what was happening. In an annular eclipse, the Moon is too far from the
    Earth to block the entire Sun, and at most leaves a ring of fire where
    sunlight pours out around every edge of the Moon. The featured
    time-lapse video also recorded the eclipse through the high refraction
    of the Earth's atmosphere just above the horizon, making the unusual
    rising Sun and Moon appear also flattened. As the video continues on,
    the Sun continues to rise, and the Sun and Moon begin to separate. This
    weekend, a new annular solar eclipse will occur, visible from central
    Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and a narrow band across Asia, with much
    of Earth's Eastern hemisphere being able to see a partial solar
    eclipse.

    Tomorrow's picture: still crazy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, June 16, 2020 00:20:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 16

    APOD is 25 Years Old Today
    Video Credits: Idea & Lead: Alex Dantart (observatorio.info),
    Coordinators: Josef Chlachula (astro.cz/apod) & Alice Allen (ASCL);
    & APOD's Tireless Volunteer Army of Translators and Social Media
    Digerati; Music: unminus.com: They Say, Sad Circus, Naya, Please Wait,
    Good God

    Explanation: Welcome to the quadranscentennial year of the Astronomy
    Picture of the Day. Perhaps a source of consistency for some, APOD is
    still here. To help celebrate APOD's Silver Anniversary, some of APOD's
    TVAoTaSMD have recorded a birthday greeting and thanks to APOD's
    readership in today's featured video. Many have also highlighted a few
    of their favorite APOD images. In collaboration with NASA through APOD,
    these and other volunteers help to inform the world, in most major
    world languages and over most major media platforms, of NASA and
    humanity's growing knowledge, active exploration, and inspiring
    visualizations of the amazing astronomical universe in which we live.
    APOD's founders (still alive!) would also like to offer a sincere thank
    you -- not only to our TVAoTaSMD -- but to APOD's readership for
    continued interest, support, and many gracious communications over the
    years.

    Tomorrow's picture: galactic magnetism
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, June 19, 2020 00:04:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 19

    The Veins of Heaven
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ruslan Merzlyakov (RMS Photography)

    Explanation: Transfusing sunlight through a darkened sky, this
    beautiful display of noctilucent clouds was captured earlier this week,
    reflected in calm waters from Nykobing Mors, Denmark. From the edge of
    space, about 80 kilometers above Earth's surface, the icy clouds
    themselves still reflect sunlight, though the Sun is below the horizon
    as seen from the ground. Usually spotted at high latitudes in summer
    months the night shining clouds have made an early appearance this year
    as northern nights grow short. Also known as polar mesopheric clouds
    they are understood to form as water vapor driven into the cold upper
    atmosphere condenses on the fine dust particles supplied by
    disintegrating meteors or volcanic ash. NASA's AIM mission provides
    daily projections of noctilucent clouds as seen from space.

    Tomorrow's picture: solstice in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, June 20, 2020 17:30:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 20

    Northern Summer on Titan
    Image Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, SSI, JPL, ESA, NASA

    Explanation: Today's solstice brings summer to planet Earth's northern
    hemisphere. But the northern summer solstice arrived for ringed planet
    Saturn over three years ago on May 24, 2017. Orbiting the gas giant,
    Saturn's moon Titan experiences the Saturnian seasons that are about 7
    Earth-years long. Larger than inner planet Mercury, Titan was captured
    in this Cassini spacecraft image about two weeks after its northern
    summer began. The near-infrared view finds bright methane clouds
    drifting through Titan's dense, hazy atmosphere as seen from a distance
    of about 507,000 kilometers. Below the clouds, dark hydrocarbon lakes
    sprawl near its fully illuminated north pole.

    Tomorrow's picture: Venus by moonlight
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, June 21, 2020 01:47:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 21

    Moon Occults Venus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Dzmitry Kananovich

    Explanation: It may look like Earthrise, but it's actually Venus-set.
    Just after sunrise two days ago, both the Moon and Venus also rose. But
    then the Moon overtook Venus. In the featured image sequence centered
    on the Moon, Venus is shown increasingly angularly close to the Moon.
    In the famous Earthrise image taken just over 50 years ago, the Earth
    was captured rising over the edge of the Moon, as seen from the Apollo
    8 crew orbiting the Moon. This similar Venus-set image was taken from
    Earth, of course, specifically Estonia. Venus shows only a thin
    crescent because last week it passed nearly in front of the Sun, as
    seen from Earth. The Moon shows only a thin crescent because it will
    soon be passing directly in front of the Sun, as seen from Earth.
    Today, in fact, two days after this image was taken, the Moon will
    create a solar eclipse, with a thin swath across the Earth treated to
    an annular solar eclipse.

    Gallery: Notable images of the Venus - Mooon conjunction of 2020 June
    submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: sun block
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, June 22, 2020 00:31:56
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 22

    Moon Mountains Magnified during Ring of Fire Eclipse
    Image Credit & Copyright: Wang Letian (Eyes at Night)

    Explanation: What are those dark streaks in this composite image of
    yesterday's solar eclipse? They are reversed shadows of mountains at
    the edge of the Moon. The center image, captured from Xiamen, China,
    has the Moon's center directly in front of the Sun's center. The Moon,
    though, was too far from the Earth to completely block the entire Sun.
    Light that streamed around all of the edges of the Moon is called a
    ring of fire. Images at each end of the sequence show sunlight that
    streamed through lunar valleys. As the Moon moved further in front of
    the Sun, left to right, only the higher peaks on the Moon's perimeter
    could block sunlight. Therefore, the dark streaks are projected,
    distorted, reversed, and magnified shadows of mountains at the Moon's
    edge. Bright areas are called Bailey's Beads. Only a narrow swath
    across Earth's Eastern Hemisphere was able to see yesterday's full
    annular solar eclipse. Next June, though, a narrow swath across Earth's
    Northern Hemisphere will be able to see the next annular solar eclipse.
    A total solar eclipse will be visible at the bottom of the world near
    the end of this year.

    Gallery: Notable images of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 2020 June
    submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: x-raying the sky
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, June 25, 2020 00:21:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 25

    Eclipse Street, Hong Kong
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gary Chan

    Explanation: On June 21 an annular solar eclipse came soon after the
    solstice and our fair planet's northernmost sunset for 2020. At maximum
    eclipse, the New Moon in silhouette created a ring of fire visible
    along a narrow path at most 85 kilometers wide. The annular eclipse
    path began in central Africa, crossed south Asia and China, and ended
    over the Pacific Ocean. But a partial eclipse of the Sun was visible
    over a much broader region. In Hong Kong, this busy section of Jordan
    Street looks to the northwest, well-aligned with the track of the near
    solstice afternoon Sun. The street level view was composited with an
    eclipse sequence made with a safe solar filter on the camera. For that
    location the eclipse was partial. The Moon covered about 90 percent of
    the Sun's diameter at maximum, seen near the middle of the eclipse
    sequence.

    Gallery: Notable images of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 2020 June
    submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: eclipse at your feet
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, June 26, 2020 01:09:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 26

    Eclipse under the Bamboo
    Image Credit & Copyright: Somak Raychaudhury (Inter-University Centre
    for Astronomy & Astrophysics)

    Explanation: Want to watch a solar eclipse safely? Try looking down
    instead of up, though you might discover you have a plethora of images
    to choose from. For example, during the June 21st solar eclipse this
    confusing display appeared under a shady bamboo grove in Pune, India.
    Small gaps between close knit leaves on the tall plants effectively
    created a network of randomly placed pinholes. Each one projected a
    separate image of the eclipsed Sun. The snapshot was taken close to the
    time of maximum eclipse in Pune when the Moon covered about 60 percent
    of the Sun's diameter. But an annular eclipse, the Moon in silhouette
    completely surrounded by a bright solar disk at maximum, could be seen
    along a narrow path where the Moon's dark shadow crossed central
    Africa, south Asia, and China.

    Gallery: Notable images of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 2020 June
    submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, June 27, 2020 00:09:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 27

    Eclipse under the ISS
    Image Credit: NASA ISS Expedition 63

    Explanation: The dark shadow of the New Moon reached out and touched
    planet Earth on June 21. A high definition camera outside the
    International Space Station captured its passing in this snapshot from
    low Earth orbit near the border of Kazakhstan and China. Of course
    those along the Moon's central shadow track below could watch the much
    anticipated annular eclipse of the Sun. In the foreground a cargo
    spacecraft is docked with the orbital outpost. It's the H-II Transfer
    Vehicle-9 from JAXA the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

    Gallery: Notable images of the Annular Solar Eclipse of 2020 June
    submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: moons and shadows
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, June 28, 2020 00:29:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 28

    Europa and Jupiter from Voyager 1
    Image Credit: NASA, Voyager 1, JPL, Caltech; Processing & License:
    Alexis Tranchandon / Solaris

    Explanation: What are those spots on Jupiter? Largest and furthest,
    just right of center, is the Great Red Spot -- a huge storm system that
    has been raging on Jupiter possibly since Giovanni Cassini's likely
    notation of it 355 years ago. It is not yet known why this Great Spot
    is red. The spot toward the lower left is one of Jupiter's largest
    moons: Europa. Images from Voyager in 1979 bolster the modern
    hypothesis that Europa has an underground ocean and is therefore a good
    place to look for extraterrestrial life. But what about the dark spot
    on the upper right? That is a shadow of another of Jupiter's large
    moons: Io. Voyager 1 discovered Io to be so volcanic that no impact
    craters could be found. Sixteen frames from Voyager 1's flyby of
    Jupiter in 1979 were recently reprocessed and merged to create the
    featured image. About 43 years ago, Voyager 1 launched from Earth and
    started one of the greatest explorations of the Solar System ever.

    Free Download: Voyager Posters
    Tomorrow's picture: double sky trees
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, June 29, 2020 00:03:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 June 29

    Dark Sky Reflections
    Image Credit & Copyright: Will Godward

    Explanation: When the lake calmed down, many wonders of the land and
    sky appeared twice. Perhaps the most dramatic from the dark sky was the
    central band of our Milky Way Galaxy, visible as a diagonal band.
    Toward the right were both the Small (SMC) and Large (LMC) Magellanic
    Clouds, satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. Faint multicolored bands
    of airglow fanned across the night. Numerous bright stars were visible
    including Antares, while the bright planet Jupiter appears just above
    the image center. The featured image is a composite of exposures all
    taken from the same camera and from the same location within 30 minutes
    in mid-May from the shore of Lake Bonney Riverland in South Australia.
    Dead trees that extend from the lake were captured not only in
    silhouette, but reflection, while lights from the small town of Barmera
    were visible across the lake. In July, Jupiter and Saturn will rise
    toward the east just as the Sun sets in the west.

    Tomorrow's picture: pillow star
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 02, 2020 00:39:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 2

    The Galaxy, the Planet, and the Apple Tree
    Image Credit & Copyright: Kristine Richer

    Explanation: The Old Astronomer's Milky Way arcs through this peaceful
    northern sky. Against faint, diffuse starlight you can follow dark
    rifts of interstellar dust clouds stretching from the galaxy's core.
    They lead toward bright star Antares at the right, almost due south
    above the horizon. The brightest beacon in the twilight is Jupiter,
    though. From the camera's perspective it seems to hang from the limb of
    a tree framing the foreground, an apple tree of course. The serene
    maritime nightscape was recorded in tracked and untracked exposures on
    June 16 from Dover, Nova Scotia, planet Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 02, 2020 01:42:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 2

    The Galaxy, the Planet, and the Apple Tree
    Image Credit & Copyright: Kristine Richer

    Explanation: The Old Astronomer's Milky Way arcs through this peaceful
    northern sky. Against faint, diffuse starlight you can follow dark
    rifts of interstellar dust clouds stretching from the galaxy's core.
    They lead toward bright star Antares at the right, almost due south
    above the horizon. The brightest beacon in the twilight is Jupiter,
    though. From the camera's perspective it seems to hang from the limb of
    a tree framing the foreground, an apple tree of course. The serene
    maritime nightscape was recorded in tracked and untracked exposures on
    June 16 from Dover, Nova Scotia, planet Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, July 03, 2020 00:29:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 3

    Lynds Dark Nebula 1251
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ara Jerahian

    Explanation: Stars are forming in Lynds Dark Nebula (LDN) 1251. About
    1,000 light-years away and drifting above the plane of our Milky Way
    galaxy, the dusty molecular cloud is part of a complex of dark nebulae
    mapped toward the Cepheus flare region. Across the spectrum,
    astronomical explorations of the obscuring interstellar clouds reveal
    energetic shocks and outflows associated with newborn stars, including
    the telltale reddish glow from scattered Herbig-Haro objects seen in
    this sharp image. Distant background galaxies also lurk on the scene,
    buried behind the dusty expanse. This alluring view imaged with a
    backyard telescope and broadband filters spans about two full moons on
    the sky, or 17 light-years at the estimated distance of LDN 1251.

    Tomorrow's picture: transient luminous events
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, July 04, 2020 00:43:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 4

    Meeting in the Mesosphere
    Image Credit & Copyright: Stephane Vetter (TWAN, Nuits sacrees)

    Explanation: A sensitive video camera on a summit of the Vosges
    mountains in France captured these surprising fireworks above a distant
    horizon on June 26. Generated over intense thunderstorms, this one
    about 260 kilometers away, the brief and mysterious flashes have come
    to be known as red sprites. The transient luminous events are caused by
    electrical breakdown at altitudes of 50 to 100 kilometers. That puts
    them in the mesophere, the coldest layer of planet Earth's atmosphere.
    The glow beneath the sprites is from more familiar lighting though,
    below the storm clouds. But on the right, the video frames have
    captured another summertime apparition from the mesophere. The silvery
    veins of light are polar mesospheric clouds. Also known as noctilucent
    or night shining clouds, the icy clouds still reflect the sunlight when
    the Sun is below the horizon.

    Tomorrow's picture: Saturn six-sided
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, July 05, 2020 00:14:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 5

    Saturn's Northern Hexagon
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, JPL, SSI, Cassini Imaging Team

    Explanation: Why would clouds form a hexagon on Saturn? Nobody is sure.
    Originally discovered during the Voyager flybys of Saturn in the 1980s,
    nobody has ever seen anything like it anywhere else in the Solar
    System. Acquiring its first sunlit views of far northern Saturn in late
    2012, the Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera recorded this
    stunning, false-color image of the ringed planet's north pole. The
    composite of near-infrared image data results in red hues for low
    clouds and green for high ones, giving the Saturnian cloudscape a vivid
    appearance. This and similar images show the stability of the hexagon
    even 20+ years after Voyager. Movies of Saturn's North Pole show the
    cloud structure maintaining its hexagonal structure while rotating.
    Unlike individual clouds appearing like a hexagon on Earth, the Saturn
    cloud pattern appears to have six well defined sides of nearly equal
    length. Four Earths could fit inside the hexagon. Beyond the cloud tops
    at the upper right, arcs of the planet's eye-catching rings appear
    bright blue.

    Tomorrow's picture: deep hunter
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, July 06, 2020 00:35:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 6

    M43: Dust, Gas, and Stars in the Orion Nebula
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, HLA; Reprocessing & Copyright: Bryan
    Goff

    Explanation: Unspeakable beauty and unimaginable bedlam can be found
    together in the Orion Nebula Arguably the most famous of all astronomy
    nebulas, the Great Nebula in Orion is an immense interstellar molecular
    cloud only 1500 light-years away. In the featured deep image shown in
    assigned colors, the part of the nebula's center known as M43 is shown
    as taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Great Nebula in Orion can
    be found with the unaided eye near the easily identifiable belt of
    three stars in the popular constellation Orion. The entire Orion
    Nebula, including both M42 and M43 spans about 40 light years and is
    located in the same spiral arm of our Galaxy as the Sun.

    Tomorrow's picture: mercury extended
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, July 07, 2020 00:03:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 7

    Comet NEOWISE over Lebanon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Maroun Habib (Moophz)

    Explanation: A comet has suddenly become visible to the unaided eye.
    Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) was discovered in late March and brightened
    as it reached its closest approach to the Sun, inside the orbit of
    Mercury, late last week. The interplanetary iceberg survived solar
    heating, so far, and is now becoming closer to the Earth as it starts
    its long trek back to the outer Solar System. As Comet NEOWISE became
    one of the few naked-eye comets of the 21st Century, word spread
    quickly, and the comet has already been photographed behind many famous
    sites and cities around the globe. Featured, Comet NEOWISE was captured
    over Lebanon two days ago just before sunrise. The future brightness of
    Comet NEOWISE remains somewhat uncertain but the comet will likely
    continue to be findable not only in the early morning sky, but also
    next week in the early evening sky.

    Comet NEOWISE from Around the Globe: Notable Images Submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: mercury extended
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, July 08, 2020 00:28:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 8

    Mercury's Sodium Tail
    Image Credit & Copyright: Andrea Alessandrini

    Explanation: What is that fuzzy streak extending from Mercury? Long
    exposures of our Solar System's innermost planet may reveal something
    unexpected: a tail. Mercury's thin atmosphere contains small amounts of
    sodium that glow when excited by light from the Sun. Sunlight also
    liberates these molecules from Mercury's surface and pushes them away.
    The yellow glow from sodium, in particular, is relatively bright.
    Pictured, Mercury and its sodium tail are visible in a deep image taken
    in late May from Italy through a filter that primarily transmits yellow
    light emitted by sodium. First predicted in the 1980s, Mercury's tail
    was first discovered in 2001. Many tail details were revealed in
    multiple observations by NASA's robotic MESSENGER spacecraft that
    orbited Mercury between 2011 and 2015. Tails are usually associated
    with comets. The tails of Comet NEOWISE are currently visible with the
    unaided eye in the morning sky.

    Comet NEOWISE from Around the Globe: Notable Images Submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 09, 2020 00:22:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 9

    Noctilucent Clouds and Comet NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Emmanuel Paoly

    Explanation: These silvery blue waves washing over a tree-lined horizon
    in the eastern French Alps are noctilucent clouds. From high in planet
    Earth's mesosphere, they reflect sunlight in this predawn skyscape
    taken on July 8. This summer, the night-shining clouds are not new to
    the northern high-latitudes. Comet NEOWISE is though. Also known as
    C/2020 F3, the comet was discovered in March by the Earth-orbiting Near
    Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) satellite.
    It's now emerging in morning twilight only just visible to the unaided
    eye from a clear location above the northeastern horizon.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, July 10, 2020 00:14:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 10

    Comet NEOWISE from the ISS
    Image Credit: NASA, ISS

    Explanation: Rounding the Sun on July 3rd and currently headed for the
    outer Solar System, Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) has been growing brighter
    in the predawn skies of planet Earth. From low Earth orbit it also
    rises before the Sun, captured above the approaching glow along the
    eastern horizon in this snapshot from the International Space Station
    on July 5. Venus, now Earth's morning star is the brilliant celestial
    beacon on the right in the field of view. Above Venus you can spot the
    sister stars of the more compact Pleiades cluster. Earthbound skygazers
    can spot this comet with the unaided eye, but should look for awesome
    views with binoculars.

    Comet NEOWISE from Earth's Surface: Notable Images Submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, July 11, 2020 00:19:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 11

    The Tails of Comet NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Miloslav Druckmuller (Brno University of
    Technology)

    Explanation: Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) is now sweeping through northern
    skies. Its developing tails stretch some six degrees across this
    telescopic field of view, recorded from Brno, Czech Republic before
    daybreak on July 10. Pushed out by the pressure of sunlight itself, the
    comet's broad, yellowish dust tail is easiest to see. But the image
    also captures a fainter, more bluish tail too, separate from the
    reflective comet dust. The fainter tail is an ion tail, formed as ions
    from the cometary coma are dragged outward by magnetic fields in the
    solar wind and fluoresce in the sunlight. In this sharp portrait of our
    new visitor from the outer Solar System, the tails of comet NEOWISE are
    reminiscent of the even brighter tails of Hale Bopp, the Great Comet of
    1997.

    Comet NEOWISE from Around the Globe: Notable Images Submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: tales of Comet CG
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, July 12, 2020 01:43:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 12

    Comet CG Creates Its Dust Tail
    Image Credit & License: ESA, Rosetta, NAVCAM

    Explanation: Where do comet tails come from? There are no obvious
    places on the nuclei of comets from which the jets that create comet
    tails emanate. One of the best images of emerging jets is shown in the
    featured picture, taken in 2015 by ESA's robotic Rosetta spacecraft
    that orbited Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Comet CG) from 2014 to
    2016. The picture shows plumes of gas and dust escaping numerous places
    from Comet CG's nucleus as it neared the Sun and heated up. The comet
    has two prominent lobes, the larger one spanning about 4 kilometers,
    and a smaller 2.5-kilometer lobe connected by a narrow neck. Analyses
    indicate that evaporation must be taking place well inside the comet's
    surface to create the jets of dust and ice that we see emitted through
    the surface. Comet CG (also known as Comet 67P) loses in jets about a
    meter of radius during each of its 6.44-year orbits around the Sun, a
    rate at which will completely destroy the comet in only thousands of
    years. In 2016, Rosetta's mission ended with a controlled impact onto
    Comet CG's surface.

    Comet NEOWISE from Around the Globe: Notable Images Submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: NEOWISEr
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, July 14, 2020 00:10:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 14

    Comet NEOWISE over Stonehenge
    Image Credit & Copyright: Declan Deval

    Explanation: Have you ever seen a comet? Tonight -- and likely the next
    few nights -- should be a good chance. Go outside just at sunset and
    look to your northwest. The lower your horizon, the better. Binoculars
    may help, but if your sky is cloudless and dark, all you should need is
    your unaided eyes and patience. As the Sun sets, the sky will darken,
    and there will be an unusual faint streak pointing diagonally near the
    horizon. That is Comet NEOWISE. It is a 5-kilometer-wide evaporating
    dirty iceberg visiting from -- and returning to -- the outer Solar
    System. As the Earth turns, the comet will soon set, so you might want
    to take a picture. In the featured image, Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) was
    captured two mornings ago rising over Stonehenge in the UK. Discovered
    with the NASA satellite NEOWISE toward the end of March, Comet NEOWISE
    has surprised many by surviving its closest approach to the Sun,
    brightening dramatically, and developing impressive (blue) ion and
    (white) dust tails.

    Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: || July 13 || July
    12 || July 11 || July 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: NEOWISE Night
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, July 15, 2020 15:05:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 15

    Comet NEOWISE over the Swiss Alps
    Image Credit & Copyright: Philipp Salzgeber, foto-webcam.eu; Text: Adam
    Block

    Explanation: Comet NEOWISE has been wowing photographers around much of
    the world during dawn and dusk, at the margins of day and night. For
    the most northern residents of planet Earth, however, the comet circles
    the North Star and never sets. The night part of this circular arc is
    apparent in the featured composite of images assembled from a webcam
    located at a ski resort in the Swiss Alps. Images were selected at
    30-minute intervals throughout the night from July 12th -13th. Comet
    NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) will continue to become more accessible to northern
    hemisphere observers as its motion places it higher in the sky each
    evening after sunset over the next few weeks, as it begins its outbound
    journey. As with all comets, departure from the inner Solar System
    comes with inevitable fading. Binoculars are the best way to find and
    observe the comet visually.

    Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: || July 14 || July
    13 || July 12 || July 11 || July 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.



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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 16, 2020 00:18:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 16

    The Long Tails of Comet NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horalek

    Explanation: This Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) now sweeps through our fair
    planet's northern skies. Its long tails stretch across this deep
    skyview from Suchy Vrch, Czech Republic. Recorded on the night of July
    13/14, the composite of untracked foreground and tracked and filtered
    sky exposures teases out details in the comet's tail not visible to the
    unaided eye. Faint structures extend to the top of the frame, over 20
    degrees from the comet's bright coma. Pushed out by the pressure of
    sunlight itself, the broad curve of the comet's yellowish dust tail is
    easy to see by eye. But the fainter, more bluish tail is separate from
    the reflective comet dust. The fainter tail is an ion tail, formed as
    ions from the cometary coma are dragged outward by magnetic fields in
    the solar wind and fluoresce in the sunlight. Outbound NEOWISE is
    climbing higher in northern evening skies, coming closest to Earth on
    July 23rd.

    Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: || July 15 || July
    14 || July 13 || July 12 || July 11 || July 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: tales in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, July 17, 2020 00:12:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 17

    NEOWISE of the North
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bill Peters

    Explanation: After local midnight on July 14 comet NEOWISE was still
    above the horizon for Goldenrod, Alberta, Canada, just north of
    Calgary, planet Earth. In this snapshot it makes for an awesome night
    with dancing displays of the northern lights. The long-tailed comet and
    auroral displays are beautiful apparitions in the north these days.
    Both show the influence of spaceweather and the wind from the Sun.
    Skygazers have widely welcomed the visitor from the Oort cloud, though
    C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) is in an orbit that is now taking it out of the
    inner Solar System.

    Comet NEOWISE Images: July 16 | July 15 | July 14 | July 13 | July 12 |
    July 11 | July 10 & earlier
    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, July 18, 2020 00:59:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 18

    Finding NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Tom Masterson

    Explanation: If you can see the stars of the Big Dipper, you can find
    comet NEOWISE in your evening sky tonight. After sunset look for the
    naked-eye comet below the bowl of the famous celestial kitchen utensil
    of the north and above your northwestern horizon. You're looking for a
    fuzzy 'star' with a tail, though probably not so long a tail as in this
    clear sky snapshot taken from Los Padres National Forest in California
    on the evening of July 16. Recent photographs of C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE)
    often show this comet's broad dust tail and fainter but separate ion
    tail extending farther than the eye can follow. Skygazers around the
    world have been delighted to find NEOWISE, surprise visitor from the
    outer Solar System.

    Comet NEOWISE Images: July 17 | July 16 | July 15 | July 14
    | July 13 | July 12 | July 11 | July 10 & earlier
    Tomorrow's picture: our rotating moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, July 19, 2020 00:44:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 19

    Rotating Moon from LRO
    Video Credit: NASA, LRO, Arizona State U.

    Explanation: No one, presently, sees the Moon rotate like this. That's
    because the Earth's moon is tidally locked to the Earth, showing us
    only one side. Given modern digital technology, however, combined with
    many detailed images returned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
    (LRO), a high resolution virtual Moon rotation movie has been composed.
    The featured time-lapse video starts with the standard Earth view of
    the Moon. Quickly, though, Mare Orientale, a large crater with a dark
    center that is difficult to see from the Earth, rotates into view just
    below the equator. From an entire lunar month condensed into 24
    seconds, the video clearly shows that the Earth side of the Moon
    contains an abundance of dark lunar maria, while the lunar far side is
    dominated by bright lunar highlands. Currently, over 19 new missions to
    the Moon are under active development from eight different countries,
    most of which have expected launch dates in the next three years.

    Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: July || 18 || 17 ||
    16 || 15 || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: comet tale
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, July 20, 2020 00:03:05
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 20

    Comet NEOWISE and Nebulae
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jarek Oszywa

    Explanation: Would you brave wild animals to photograph this sky? One
    astrophotographer did -- and we all get to reap the rewards. First,
    thousands of stars were visible with many of the brightest impressively
    blue. Next, several red-glowing nebulae were discernible, including the
    California Nebula on the far right, and, above it, the Heart and Soul
    nebulae. But the real reason to brave the local wildlife was Comet
    NEOWISE, visible on the left. In the featured long-duration composite
    taken last week, Comet NEOWISE's blue-glowing ion tail points straight
    up, away from the rising Sun, while the Sun-reflecting dust tail trails
    off toward the right. The picture combines three exposures taken
    consecutively over 10 minutes from the same location near Miedzygrze,
    Poland. A moonlit dirt road shows the path ahead, while the Snieznik
    Mountains is visible on the horizon. Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) passes
    its closest to the Earth next week, after which the 5-km wide,
    evaporating, icy dirtball will fade as it glides back to the outer
    Solar System.

    Notable Images of Comet NEOWISE Submitted to APOD: July || 19 || 18 ||
    17 || 16 || 15 || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: not NEOWISE
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, July 21, 2020 00:04:17
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 21

    Iron in the Butterfly Nebula
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble; Processing & License: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: Can stars, like caterpillars, transform themselves into
    butterflies? No, but in the case of the Butterfly Nebula -- it sure
    looks like it. Though its wingspan covers over 3 light-years and its
    estimated surface temperature exceeds 200,000 degrees, C, the dying
    central star of NGC 6302, the featured planetary nebula, has become
    exceptionally hot, shining brightly in visible and ultraviolet light
    but hidden from direct view by a dense torus of dust. This sharp
    close-up was recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope and is reprocessed
    here to show off the remarkable details of the complex planetary
    nebula, highlighting in particular light emitted by iron, shown in red.
    NGC 6302 lies about 4,000 light-years away in the arachnologically
    correct constellation of the Scorpion (Scorpius). Planetary nebulas
    evolve from outer atmospheres of stars like our Sun, but usually fade
    in about 20,000 years.

    Great Debates in Astronomy: 2020: How will humanity first discover
    extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, July 22, 2020 00:08:19
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 22

    The Structured Tails of Comet NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Zixuan Lin (Beijing Normal U.)

    Explanation: What is creating the structure in Comet NEOWISE's tails?
    Of the two tails evident, the blue ion tail on the left points directly
    away from the Sun and is pushed out by the flowing and charged solar
    wind. Structure in the ion tail comes from different rates of expelled
    blue-glowing ions from the comet's nucleus, as well as the always
    complex and continually changing structure of our Sun's wind. Most
    unusual for Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE), though, is the wavy structure of
    its dust tail. This dust tail is pushed out by sunlight, but curves as
    heavier dust particles are better able to resist this light pressure
    and continue along a solar orbit. Comet NEOWISE's impressive dust-tail
    striations are not fully understood, as yet, but likely related to
    rotating streams of sun-reflecting grit liberated by ice melting on its
    5-kilometer wide nucleus. The featured 40-image conglomerate, digitally
    enhanced, was captured three days ago through the dark skies of the
    Gobi Desert in Inner Mongolia, China. Comet NEOWISE will make it
    closest pass to the Earth tomorrow as it moves out from the Sun. The
    comet, already fading but still visible to the unaided eye, should fade
    more rapidly as it recedes from the Earth.

    Notable NEOWISE Images Submitted to APOD: July 21 || 20 || 19 || 18 ||
    17 || 16 || 15 || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 23, 2020 00:09:47
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 23

    Fairytale NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Stephane Guisard (Los Cielos de America,
    TWAN)

    Explanation: Comet dust falls through a twilight sky in this dream-like
    scene, but it's not part of a fairytale movie. Still, Castle
    Neuschwanstein, nestled in the Bavarian Alps, did inspire Disneyland's
    Sleeping Beauty Castle. Captured on July 20, the bright streak above
    the castle towers is likely a Perseid meteor. Though it peaks near
    mid-August, the annual summer meteor shower is active now. The meteor
    trail over the fairytale castle can be traced back to the shower's
    radiant in the heroic constellation Perseus off the top right of the
    frame. Perseid meteors are produced by dust from periodic Comet
    Swift-Tuttle. With its own broad dust tail now sweeping through
    northern skies the celestial apparition above the distant horizon is
    planet Earth's current darling, Comet NEOWISE.

    Comet NEOWISE Images: July 22 || 21 || 20 || 19 || 18 || 17 || 16 || 15
    || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: Magic NEOWISE
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, July 24, 2020 00:23:09
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 24

    MAGIC NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Urs Leutenegger

    Explanation: The multi-mirror, 17 meter-diameter MAGIC telescopes
    reflect this starry night sky from the Roque de los Muchachos European
    Northern Observatory on the Canary Island of La Palma. MAGIC stands for
    Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov and the telescopes can see
    the brief flashes of optical light produced in particle air showers as
    high-energy gamma rays impact the Earth's upper atmosphere. On July 20,
    two of the three telescopes in view were looking for gamma rays from
    the center of our Milky Way galaxy. In reflection they show the bright
    stars of Sagittarius and Scorpius near the galactic center to the
    southeast. Beyond the segmented-mirror arrays, above the northwest
    horizon and below the Big Dipper is Comet NEOWISE. NEOWISE stands for
    Near Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. That's the
    Earth-orbiting satellite used to discover the comet designated C/2020
    F3, but you knew that.

    Comet NEOWISE Images: July 23 || 22 || 21 || 20 || 19 || 18 || 17 || 16
    || 15 || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier
    Tomorrow's picture: from a rotating planet
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, July 27, 2020 00:10:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 27

    Comet and Lightning Beyond Bighorn Mountains
    Image Credit & Copyright: Kevin Palmer

    Explanation: Normally, Steamboat Point looks cool -- but not this cool.
    Every day, the iconic peak of the Bighorn Mountains is an interesting
    sight, in particular from US Highway 14 in Wyoming. On some rare days,
    the rocky vertical ridges look even more incredible when seen in front
    of a distant lightning storm. Earlier this month, though, something
    even more unusual happened -- the naked-eye Comet NEOWISE rose above it
    in the middle of the night. Just as a distant lightning storm was
    occurring in the background. Recognizing a rare opportunity, a
    determined astrophotographer spent a sleepless night capturing over
    1400 images of this unusual triple conjunction. The featured image is
    among the best of them, with the foreground lit by the Moon off to the
    right. Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) is now headed back to the outer Solar
    System, destined to return only in about 6700 years.

    Comet NEOWISE Images: July 26 || 25 || 24 || 23 || 22 || 21 || 20 || 19
    || 18 || 17 || 16 || 15 || 14 || 13 || 12 || 11 || 10 & earlier ||
    Tomorrow's picture: fighting space dragons
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, July 28, 2020 00:03:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 28

    NGC 6188: The Dragons of Ara
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ariel L. Cappelletti

    Explanation: Dark shapes with bright edges winging their way through
    dusty NGC 6188 are tens of light-years long. The emission nebula is
    found near the edge of an otherwise dark and large molecular cloud in
    the southern constellation Ara, about 4,000 light-years away. Born in
    that region only a few million years ago, the massive young stars of
    the embedded Ara OB1 association sculpt the fantastic shapes and power
    the nebular glow with stellar winds and intense ultraviolet radiation.
    The recent star formation itself was likely triggered by winds and
    supernova explosions, from previous generations of massive stars, that
    swept up and compressed the molecular gas. The featured image
    accumulated over 10 hours through a backyard telescope in Crdoba,
    Argentina and was false-colored using the Hubble palette highlighting
    emission from sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in red, green, and
    blue hues. The field of view spans about four full Moons, corresponding
    to about 150 light years at the estimated distance of NGC 6188.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, July 29, 2020 00:10:25
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 29

    The Giants of Summer
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jean-Luc Dauvergne

    Explanation: As Comet NEOWISE sweeps through northern summer skies,
    Jupiter and Saturn are shining brightly, near opposition. With Jupiter
    opposite the Sun on July 14 and Saturn on July 21, the giant planets
    are still near their closest to planet Earth in 2020. Sharing the
    constellation Sagittarius they are up all night, and offer their best
    and brightest views at the telescope. Both captured on July 22 from a
    balcony in Paris these two sharp telescopic images don't disappoint,
    showing off what the giant planets are famous for, Saturn's bright
    rings and Jupiter's Great Red Spot. These giants of the Solar System
    are worth following during 2020. On December 21, skygazers can watch
    the once-in-20-year great conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.

    Comet NEOWISE images from planet Earth: July 28, 27, 26, 25, 24
    Tomorrow's picture: the pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, July 30, 2020 00:07:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 30

    The Red Planet Mars
    Image Credit & Copyright: Luc Debeck

    Explanation: Mars looks pretty sharp in this backyard telescope image
    captured on July 23 from Hoegaarden, Belgium, planet Earth. The Red
    Planet's bright south polar cap is bathed in sunlight at the top of the
    inverted view, while the dark feature known as Syrtis Major extends
    toward the right (eastern) edge. Rising around midnight for now, the
    Red Planet is months away from its own opposition in early October.
    Telescopic views will improve even more as Earth, in its faster orbit,
    catches up to Mars, the ruddy disk growing larger and brighter still.
    The martian Jezero Crater is within the Syrtis Major region. That's the
    landing site for NASA's 2020 Mars Rover Perseverance, scheduled for
    launch today.

    Comet NEOWISE images from planet Earth: July 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24
    Tomorrow's picture: more pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, July 31, 2020 02:29:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 July 31

    Mars 2020 from 5,000 Feet
    Image Credit & Copyright: John Kraus

    Explanation: On Thursday this snapshot from a small plane 5,000 feet
    above Florida's Space Coast caught a rocket's trail rising into the
    blue morning sky. It was July's third launch of a mission from planet
    Earth bound for Mars. The Atlas V rocket left Cape Canaveral Air Force
    Station from Space Launch Complex 41 at 7:50am EDT carrying NASA's Mars
    2020 Perseverance Rover. The car-sized Perseverance is headed for a
    landing at Jezero Crater on the Red Planet in February 2021. On board
    the sophisticated rover is the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter.

    Mars 2020 Launch: photos from planet Earth
    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, August 01, 2020 00:54:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 1

    The Elephant's Trunk Nebula in Cepheus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Chad Leader

    Explanation: Like an illustration in a galactic Just So Story, the
    Elephant's Trunk Nebula winds through the emission nebula and young
    star cluster complex IC 1396, in the high and far off constellation of
    Cepheus. Also known as vdB 142, the cosmic elephant's trunk is over 20
    light-years long. This detailed close-up view was recorded through
    narrow band filters that transmit the light from ionized hydrogen and
    oxygen atoms in the region. The resulting composite highlights the
    bright swept-back ridges that outline pockets of cool interstellar dust
    and gas. Such embedded, dark, tendril-shaped clouds contain the raw
    material for star formation and hide protostars within. Nearly 3,000
    light-years distant, the relatively faint IC 1396 complex covers a
    large region on the sky, spanning over 5 degrees. This dramatic scene
    spans a 1 degree wide field of view though, about the size of 2 Full
    Moons.

    Mars 2020 Launch: photos from planet Earth
    Tomorrow's picture: two worlds
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.17 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, August 02, 2020 00:11:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 2

    Two Worlds, One Sun
    Left Image Credit & Copyright: Damia Bouic;
    Right Image Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, MSSS; Digital processing: Damia
    Bouic

    Explanation: How different does sunset appear from Mars than from
    Earth? For comparison, two images of our common star were taken at
    sunset, one from Earth and one from Mars. These images were scaled to
    have same angular width and featured here side-by-side. A quick
    inspection will reveal that the Sun appears slightly smaller from Mars
    than from Earth. This makes sense since Mars is 50% further from the
    Sun than Earth. More striking, perhaps, is that the Martian sunset is
    noticeably bluer near the Sun than the typically orange colors near the
    setting Sun from Earth. The reason for the blue hues from Mars is not
    fully understood, but thought to be related to forward scattering
    properties of Martian dust. The terrestrial sunset was taken in 2012
    March from Marseille, France, while the Martian sunset was captured in
    2015 by NASA's robotic Curiosity rover from Gale crater on Mars. Last
    week a new rover and a helicopter -- onboard Mars 2020 -- launched for
    Mars.

    Tomorrow's picture: gaping comet
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, August 03, 2020 00:49:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 3

    Comet NEOWISE over Vikos Gorge
    Image Credit & Copyright: Constantine Emmanouilidi

    Explanation: Did the Earth part to show us this comet? Of course not,
    even if this image makes it seem that way. Pictured far in the
    background is Comet NEOWISE as it appeared about two weeks ago over
    northern Greece. Above the comet are many stars including the bright
    stars of the Big Dipper (also the Sorcerer, in Aztec mythology), an
    asterism that many people around the world used to find the naked-eye
    comet as it hovered in the northern sky over the past month. In the
    foreground is Vikos Gorge, the deepest gorge on Earth, relative to its
    width. The gorge was slowly created by erosion from the Voidomatis
    River over the past few million years. Capturing this image took a lot
    of planning, waiting, luck, braving high winds, and avoiding local
    wolves. Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) continues to fade and is now best
    visible through binoculars as it coasts back to the outer Solar System.

    Notable Comet NEOWISE Images: July 31 30, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24
    Tomorrow's picture: galaxy swirl
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, August 04, 2020 00:12:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 4

    NGC 2442: Galaxy in Volans
    Image Credit & Copyright: Processing: Robert Gendler & Roberto
    Colombari
    Data: Hubble Legacy Archive, European Southern Observatory

    Explanation: Distorted galaxy NGC 2442 can be found in the southern
    constellation of the flying fish, (Piscis) Volans. Located about 50
    million light-years away, the galaxy's two spiral arms extending from a
    pronounced central bar have a hook-like appearance in wide-field
    images. But this mosaicked close-up, constructed from Hubble Space
    Telescope and European Southern Observatory data, follows the galaxy's
    structure in amazing detail. Obscuring dust lanes, young blue star
    clusters and reddish star forming regions surround a core of yellowish
    light from an older population of stars. The sharp image data also
    reveal more distant background galaxies seen right through NGC 2442's
    star clusters and nebulae. The image spans about 75,000 light-years at
    the estimated distance of NGC 2442.

    Tomorrow's picture: sun dagger
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, August 05, 2020 00:04:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 5

    Picture Rocks Sun Dagger
    Video Credit & Copyright: Martha Schaefer, Brad Schaefer, Jim Stamm;
    Music & License: Awakening (Wojciech Usarewicz), Lone Tree Music

    Explanation: Ancient sun daggers will not hurt you, but they may tell
    you the time. A sun dagger is a dagger-shaped gap in a shadow created
    by sunlight streaming through a crevice in a nearby rock. Starting over
    a thousand year ago, native people of the American southwest carved
    spiral petroglyphs into rocks that became illuminated by sun daggers in
    different ways as the Sun shifts in the sky. A type of sundial, where
    the end of the sundagger points in the spiral at high noon (for
    example) indicates a time of year, possibly illuminating a solstice or
    equinox. Sun daggers are thought to have been used by Sun Priests
    during lone vigils with prayers and offerings. Of the few known, the
    featured video discusses the historic Picture Rocks Sun Dagger near
    Tucson, Arizona, USA, likely created by a Hohokam Sun Priest around
    1000 AD.

    Tomorrow's picture: 20 and 21
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, August 06, 2020 00:11:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 6

    Messier 20 and 21
    Image Credit & Copyright: Emanuele Petrilli

    Explanation: The beautiful Trifid Nebula, also known as Messier 20, is
    easy to find with a small telescope in the nebula rich constellation
    Sagittarius. About 5,000 light-years away, the colorful study in cosmic
    contrasts shares this well-composed, nearly 1 degree wide field with
    open star cluster Messier 21 (right). Trisected by dust lanes the
    Trifid itself is about 40 light-years across and a mere 300,000 years
    old. That makes it one of the youngest star forming regions in our sky,
    with newborn and embryonic stars embedded in its natal dust and gas
    clouds. Estimates of the distance to open star cluster M21 are similar
    to M20's, but though they share this gorgeous telescopic skyscape there
    is no apparent connection between the two. In fact, M21's stars are
    much older, about 8 million years old.

    Tomorrow's picture: dark markings
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, August 07, 2020 01:15:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 7

    The Pipe Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jose Mtanos

    Explanation: East of Antares, dark markings sprawl through crowded star
    fields toward the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. Cataloged in the
    early 20th century by astronomer E. E. Barnard, the obscuring
    interstellar dust clouds include B59, B72, B77 and B78, seen in against
    the starry background. Here, their combined shape suggests a pipe stem
    and bowl, and so the dark nebula's popular name is the Pipe Nebula. The
    deep and expansive view covers a full 10 by 10 degree field in the
    pronounceable constellation Ophiuchus. The Pipe Nebula is part of the
    Ophiuchus dark cloud complex located at a distance of about 450
    light-years. Dense cores of gas and dust within the Pipe Nebula are
    collapsing to form stars.

    Tomorrow's picture: Somewhat Saturn
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, August 08, 2020 00:19:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 8

    Crescent Saturn
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, SSI, Cassini Imaging Team

    Explanation: From Earth, Saturn never shows a crescent phase. But when
    viewed from a spacecraft the majestic giant planet can show just a
    sunlit slice. This image of crescent Saturn in natural color was taken
    by the robotic Cassini spacecraft in 2007. It captures Saturn's rings
    from the side of the ring plane opposite the Sun -- the unilluminated
    side -- another vista not visible from Earth. Visible are subtle colors
    of cloud bands, the complex shadows of the rings on the planet, and the
    shadow of the planet on the rings. The moons Mimas, at 2 o'clock, and
    Janus 4 o'clock, can be seen as specks of light, but the real challenge
    is to find Pandora (8 o'clock). From Earth, Saturn's disk is nearly
    full now and opposite the Sun. Along with bright fellow giant planet
    Jupiter it rises in the early evening.

    Tomorrow's picture: elementree
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, August 09, 2020 00:41:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 9

    The Origin of Elements
    Image Credit & License: Wikipedia: Cmglee; Data: Jennifer Johnson (OSU)

    Explanation: The hydrogen in your body, present in every molecule of
    water, came from the Big Bang. There are no other appreciable sources
    of hydrogen in the universe. The carbon in your body was made by
    nuclear fusion in the interior of stars, as was the oxygen. Much of the
    iron in your body was made during supernovas of stars that occurred
    long ago and far away. The gold in your jewelry was likely made from
    neutron stars during collisions that may have been visible as
    short-duration gamma-ray bursts or gravitational wave events. Elements
    like phosphorus and copper are present in our bodies in only small
    amounts but are essential to the functioning of all known life. The
    featured periodic table is color coded to indicate humanity's best
    guess as to the nuclear origin of all known elements. The sites of
    nuclear creation of some elements, such as copper, are not really well
    known and are continuing topics of observational and computational
    research.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: leaking sky
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, August 10, 2020 00:07:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 10

    Perseids from Perseus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Petr Horlek

    Explanation: Where are all these meteors coming from? In terms of
    direction on the sky, the pointed answer is the constellation of
    Perseus. That is why the meteor shower that peaks tomorrow night is
    known as the Perseids -- the meteors all appear to came from a radiant
    toward Perseus. In terms of parent body, though, the sand-sized debris
    that makes up the Perseids meteors come from Comet Swift-Tuttle. The
    comet follows a well-defined orbit around our Sun, and the part of the
    orbit that approaches Earth is superposed in front of the Perseus.
    Therefore, when Earth crosses this orbit, the radiant point of falling
    debris appears in Perseus. Featured here, a composite image taken over
    eight nights and containing over 400 meteors from last August's
    Perseids meteor shower shows many bright meteors that streaked over
    Kolonica Observatory in Slovakia. This year's Perseids holds promise to
    be one of the best meteor showers of the year.

    Tomorrow's picture: high on jupiter
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, August 11, 2020 00:37:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 11

    Churning Clouds on Jupiter
    Image Credit & License: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS; Processing: Kevin
    M. Gill

    Explanation: Where is Jupiter's ammonia? Gaseous ammonia was expected
    to be seen in Jupiter's upper atmosphere by the orbiting Juno
    spacecraft -- but in many clouds is almost absent. Recent Juno data,
    however, gives some clues: some high-level clouds appear to be home to
    an unexpected type of electrical discharge dubbed shallow lightning.
    Great charge separations are needed for lightning, which might be
    created by colliding mushballs lifted by rising updrafts of gas.
    Ammonia and water stick to these mushballs which rise until they get
    too heavy -- after which they fall deep into Jupiter's atmosphere and
    melt. By this process, ammonia found missing from Jupiter's upper
    atmosphere reappears below. Pictured by Juno, churning clouds on
    Jupiter show not only mesmerizing complexity but some high-level,
    light-colored pop-up clouds. Understanding atmospheric dynamics on
    Jupiter gives valuable perspective to similar atmospheric and lightning
    phenomena that occur on our home Earth.

    Peaking Tonight: The Perseid Meteor Shower
    Tomorrow's picture: Comet NEOWISE's Pointing Tail
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, August 12, 2020 00:52:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 12

    The Shifting Tails of Comet NEOWISE
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ignacio Llorens

    Explanation: Keep your eye on the ion tail of Comet NEOWISE. A tale of
    this tail is the trail of the Earth. As with all comets, the blue ion
    tail always points away from the Sun. But as Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE)
    rounded our Sun, its ion tail pointed in slightly different directions.
    This is because between 2020 July 17 and July 25 when the featured
    images were taken, the Earth moved noticeably in its orbit around the
    Sun. But the Earth's motion made the Sun appear to shift in the sky. So
    even though you can't see the Sun directly in the featured image(s),
    the directions of the ion tails reveal this apparent solar shift. The
    Sun's apparent motion is in the ecliptic, the common plane where all
    planets orbit. The featured five image composite was meticulously
    composed to accurately place each comet image -- and the five
    extrapolated solar positions -- on a single foreground image of Tur de
    l'Home Mountain, north of Barcelona, Spain Comet NEOWISE is no longer
    the impressive naked-eye object it was last month, but it can still be
    found with a small telescope as it heads back to the outer Solar
    System.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, August 13, 2020 05:34:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 13

    Jupiter and Saturn Rising Beyond Alien Throne Rock
    Image Credit & Copyright: Marcin Zajac

    Explanation: What planets are those behind that unusual rock spire?
    Saturn (lower left) and Jupiter. This month, after sunset, the bright
    planetary duo are quite prominent toward the southeast. Now your view
    of our Solar System's largest planets might not include a picturesque
    hoodoo in the foreground, nor the spectacular central band of our Milky
    Way Galaxy across the background, but should be quite eye-catching
    anyway. The featured image is a composite of consecutive foreground
    and background exposures all taken in late May with the same camera and
    from the same location -- the badlands of the Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah
    Wilderness in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico, USA. The rock spire,
    informally dubbed 'Alien Throne', stands about 3 meters tall. Saturn
    and Jupiter will remain visible together after sunset for several
    months.

    Tomorrow's picture: Space S
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, August 14, 2020 00:23:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 14

    NGC 5189: An Unusually Complex Planetary Nebula
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, HLA; Reprocessing & Copyright: Jess
    M. Vargas

    Explanation: Why is this nebula so complex? When a star like our Sun is
    dying, it will cast off its outer layers, usually into a simple overall
    shape. Sometimes this shape is a sphere, sometimes a double lobe, and
    sometimes a ring or a helix. In the case of planetary nebula NGC 5189,
    however, besides an overall "Z" shape (the featured image is flipped
    horizontally and so appears as an "S"), no such simple structure has
    emerged. To help find out why, the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space
    Telescope has observed NGC 5189 in great detail. Previous findings
    indicated the existence of multiple epochs of material outflow,
    including a recent one that created a bright but distorted torus
    running horizontally across image center. Hubble results appear
    consistent with a hypothesis that the dying star is part of a binary
    star system with a precessing symmetry axis. NGC 5189 spans about three
    light years and lies about 3,000 light years away toward the southern
    constellation of the Fly (Musca).

    Tomorrow's picture: Moon meets Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, August 15, 2020 00:18:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 15

    Mars at the Moon's Edge
    Image Credit & Copyright: Sergio Scauso

    Explanation: Does the Moon ever block out Mars? Yes, the Moon
    occasionally moves in front of all of the Solar System's planets. Just
    this past Sunday, as visible from some locations in South America, a
    waning gibbous Moon eclipsed Mars. The featured image from Crdoba,
    Argentina captured this occultation well, showing a familiar cratered
    Moon in the foreground with the bright planet Mars unusually adjacent.
    Within a few seconds, Mars then disappeared behind the Moon, only to
    reappear a few minutes later across the Moon. Today the Moon moves
    close to, but not in front of, Venus. Because alignments will not have
    changed by much, the next two times the Moon passes through this part
    of the sky - in early September and early October - it will also occult
    Mars, as seen from parts of South America.

    Pereid Meteor Shower: Notable images submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: grand galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, August 16, 2020 00:22:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 16

    NGC 6814: Grand Design Spiral Galaxy from Hubble
    Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA; Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: In the center of this serene stellar swirl is likely a
    harrowing black-hole beast. The surrounding swirl sweeps around
    billions of stars which are highlighted by the brightest and bluest.
    The breadth and beauty of the display give the swirl the designation of
    a grand design spiral galaxy. The central beast shows evidence that it
    is a supermassive black hole about 10 million times the mass of our
    Sun. This ferocious creature devours stars and gas and is surrounded by
    a spinning moat of hot plasma that emits blasts of X-rays. The central
    violent activity gives it the designation of a Seyfert galaxy.
    Together, this beauty and beast are cataloged as NGC 6814 and have been
    appearing together toward the constellation of the Eagle (Aquila) for
    roughly the past billion years.

    Pereid Meteor Shower: Notable images submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, August 17, 2020 01:26:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 17

    Perseids Around the Milky Way
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jingyi Zhang

    Explanation: Why would meteor trails appear curved? The arcing effect
    arises only because the image artificially compresses (nearly) the
    whole sky into a rectangle. The meteors are from the Perseid Meteor
    Shower that peaked last week. The featured multi-frame image combines
    not only different directions from the 360 projection, but different
    times when bright Perseid meteors momentarily streaked across the sky.
    All Perseid meteors can be traced back to the constellation Perseus
    toward the lower left, even the seemingly curved (but really straight)
    meteor trails. Although Perseids always point back to their Perseus
    radiant, they can appear almost anywhere on the sky. The image was
    taken from Inner Mongolia, China, where grasslands meet sand dunes.
    Many treasures also visible in the busy night sky including the central
    arch of our Milky Way Galaxy, the planets Saturn and Jupiter toward the
    right, colorful airglow on the central left, and some relatively nearby
    Earthly clouds. The Perseid Meteor Shower peaks every August.

    Perseid Meteor Shower: Notable images submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: solar system prototype
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, August 18, 2020 00:08:31
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 18

    TYC 8998-760-1: Multiple Planets around a Sun Like Star
    Image Credit: ESO, A. Bohn et al.

    Explanation: Do other stars have planets like our Sun? Previous
    evidence shows that they do, coming mostly from slight shifts in the
    star's light created by the orbiting planets. Recently, however, and
    for the first time, a pair of planets has been directly imaged around a
    Sun-like star. These exoplanets orbit the star designated TYC
    8998-760-1 and are identified by arrows in the featured infrared image.
    At 17 million years old, the parent star is much younger than the
    5-billion-year age of our Sun. Also, the exoplanets are both more
    massive and orbit further out than their Solar System analogues:
    Jupiter and Saturn. The exoplanets were found by the ESO's Very Large
    Telescope in Chile by their infrared glow - after the light from their
    parent star was artificially blocked. As telescope and technology
    improve over the next decade, it is hoped that planets more closely
    resembling our Earth will be directly imaged.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: sun spin
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, August 19, 2020 00:53:25
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 19

    The Sun Rotating
    Video Credit: SDO, NASA; Digital Composition: Kevin M. Gill

    Explanation: Does the Sun change as it rotates? Yes, and the changes
    can vary from subtle to dramatic. In the featured time-lapse sequences,
    our Sun -- as imaged by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory -- is shown
    rotating though an entire month in 2014. In the large image on the
    left, the solar chromosphere is depicted in ultraviolet light, while
    the smaller and lighter image to its upper right simultaneously shows
    the more familiar solar photosphere in visible light. The rest of the
    inset six Sun images highlight X-ray emission by relatively rare iron
    atoms located at different heights of the corona, all false-colored to
    accentuate differences. The Sun takes just under a month to rotate
    completely -- rotating fastest at the equator. A large and active
    sunspot region rotates into view soon after the video starts. Subtle
    effects include changes in surface texture and the shapes of active
    regions. Dramatic effects include numerous flashes in active regions,
    and fluttering and erupting prominences visible all around the Sun's
    edge. Presently, our Sun is passing an unusually low Solar minimum in
    activity of its 11-year magnetic cycle. As the video ends, the same
    large and active sunspot region previously mentioned rotates back into
    view, this time looking different.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, August 20, 2020 00:05:03
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 20

    Seeing Titan
    Image Credit: VIMS Team, U. Arizona, U. Nantes, ESA, NASA

    Explanation: Shrouded in a thick atmosphere, Saturn's largest moon
    Titan really is hard to see. Small particles suspended in the upper
    atmosphere cause an almost impenetrable haze, strongly scattering light
    at visible wavelengths and hiding Titan's surface features from prying
    eyes. But Titan's surface is better imaged at infrared wavelengths
    where scattering is weaker and atmospheric absorption is reduced.
    Arrayed around this visible light image (center) of Titan are some of
    the clearest global infrared views of the tantalizing moon so far. In
    false color, the six panels present a consistent processing of 13 years
    of infrared image data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping
    Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini spacecraft. They offer a
    stunning comparison with Cassini's visible light view.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: unwinding M51
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, August 21, 2020 00:27:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 21

    Unwinding M51
    Image Credit & Copyright: Data - Hubble Heritage Project, Unwinding -
    Paul Howell

    Explanation: The arms of a grand design spiral galaxy 60,000
    light-years across are unwound in this digital transformation of the
    magnificent 2005 Hubble Space Telescope portrait of M51. In fact, M51
    is one of the original spiral nebulae, its winding arms described by a
    mathematical curve known as a logarithmic spiral, a spiral whose
    separation grows in a geometric way with increasing distance from the
    center. Applying logarithms to shift the pixel coordinates in the
    Hubble image relative to the center of M51 maps the galaxy's spiral
    arms into diagonal straight lines. The transformed image dramatically
    shows the arms themselves are traced by star formation, lined with
    pinkish starforming regions and young blue star clusters. Companion
    galaxy NGC 5195 (top) seems to alter the track of the arm in front of
    it though, and itself remains relatively unaffected by this unwinding
    of M51. Also known as the spira mirabilis, logarthimic spirals can be
    found in nature on all scales. For example, logarithmic spirals can
    also describe hurricanes, the tracks of subatomic particles in a bubble
    chamber and, of course, cauliflower.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, August 22, 2020 00:22:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 22

    Yogi And Friends In 3D
    Image Credit & Copyright: IMP Team, JPL, NASA

    Explanation: From July of 1997, a ramp from the Pathfinder lander, the
    Sojourner robot rover, airbags, a couch, Barnacle Bill and Yogi Rock
    appear together in this 3D stereo view of the surface of Mars. Barnacle
    Bill is the rock just left of the solar-paneled Sojourner. Yogi is the
    big friendly-looking boulder at top right. The "couch" is the angular
    rock shape visible near center on the horizon. Look at the image with
    red/blue glasses (or just hold a piece of clear red plastic over your
    left eye and blue or green over your right) to get the dramatic 3D
    perspective. The stereo view was recorded by the remarkable Imager for
    Mars Pathfinder (IMP) camera. The IMP had two optical paths for stereo
    imaging and ranging and was equipped with an array of color filters for
    spectral analysis. Operating as the first astronomical observatory on
    Mars, the IMP also recorded images of the Sun and Deimos, the smallest
    of Mars' two tiny moons. This July saw the launch of NASA's Mars
    Perseverance Rover on a mission to the Red Planet.

    Tomorrow's picture: helix in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, August 23, 2020 08:22:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 23

    The Helix Nebula from Blanco and Hubble
    Image Credit: C. R. O'Dell, (Vanderbilt) et al. ESA, NOAO, NASA

    Explanation: How did a star create the Helix nebula? The shapes of
    planetary nebula like the Helix are important because they likely hold
    clues to how stars like the Sun end their lives. Observations by the
    orbiting Hubble Space Telescope and the 4-meter Blanco Telescope in
    Chile, however, have shown the Helix is not really a simple helix.
    Rather, it incorporates two nearly perpendicular disks as well as arcs,
    shocks, and even features not well understood. Even so, many strikingly
    geometric symmetries remain. How a single Sun-like star created such
    beautiful yet geometric complexity is a topic of research. The Helix
    Nebula is the nearest planetary nebula to Earth, lies only about 700
    light years away toward the constellation of Aquarius, and spans about
    3 light-years.

    Tomorrow's picture: a rounder moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, August 24, 2020 00:08:58
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 24

    Crescent Moon HDR
    Image Credit & Copyright: Miguel Claro (TWAN, Dark Sky Alqueva)

    Explanation: How come the crescent Moon doesn't look like this? For one
    reason, because your eyes can't simultaneously discern bright and dark
    regions like this. Called earthshine or the da Vinci glow, the unlit
    part of a crescent Moon is visible but usually hard to see because it
    is much dimmer than the sunlit arc. In our digital age, however, the
    differences in brightness can be artificially reduced. The featured
    image is actually a digital composite of 15 short exposures of the
    bright crescent, and 14 longer exposures of the dim remainder. The
    origin of the da Vinci glow, as explained by Leonardo da Vinci about
    510 years ago, is sunlight reflected first by the Earth to the Moon,
    and then back from the Moon to the Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: around a black hole
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, August 25, 2020 00:41:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 25

    Visualization: A Black Hole Accretion Disk
    Visualization Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Jeremy
    Schnittman

    Explanation: What would it look like to circle a black hole? If the
    black hole was surrounded by a swirling disk of glowing and accreting
    gas, then the great gravity of the black hole would deflect light
    emitted by the disk to make it look very unusual. The featured animated
    video gives a visualization. The video starts with you, the observer,
    looking toward the black hole from just above the plane of the
    accretion disk. Surrounding the central black hole is a thin circular
    image of the orbiting disk that marks the position of the photon sphere
    -- inside of which lies the black hole's event horizon. Toward the
    left, parts of the large main image of the disk appear brighter as they
    move toward you. As the video continues, you loop over the black hole,
    soon looking down from the top, then passing through the disk plane on
    the far side, then returning to your original vantage point. The
    accretion disk does some interesting image inversions -- but never
    appears flat. Visualizations such as this are particularly relevant
    today as black holes are being imaged in unprecedented detail by the
    Event Horizon Telescope.

    Tomorrow's picture: swan and galaxy
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, August 27, 2020 00:18:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 27

    Shell Galaxies in Pisces
    Image Credit & Copyright: Martin Pugh

    Explanation: This intergalactic skyscape features a peculiar system of
    galaxies cataloged as Arp 227 some 100 million light-years distant.
    Swimming within the boundaries of the constellation Pisces, Arp 227
    consists of the two galaxies prominent right of center, the curious
    shell galaxy NGC 474 and its blue, spiral-armed neighbor NGC 470. The
    faint, wide arcs or shells of NGC 474 could have been formed by a
    gravitational encounter with neighbor NGC 470. Alternately the shells
    could be caused by a merger with a smaller galaxy producing an effect
    analogous to ripples across the surface of a pond. The large galaxy on
    the top lefthand side of the deep image, NGC 467, appears to be
    surrounded by faint shells too, evidence of another interacting galaxy
    system. Intriguing background galaxies are scattered around the field
    that also includes spiky foreground stars. Of course, those stars lie
    well within our own Milky Way Galaxy. The field of view spans 25 arc
    minutes or about 1/2 degree on the sky.

    Tomorrow's picture: in the valley
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, August 28, 2020 00:10:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 28

    The Valley of Orion
    Visualization Credit: NASA, ESA, F. Summers, G. Bacon,
    Z. Levay, J. DePasquale, L. Frattare, M. Robberto, M. Gennaro (STScI)
    and R. Hurt (Caltech/IPAC)

    Explanation: This exciting and unfamiliar view of the Orion Nebula is a
    visualization based on astronomical data and movie rendering
    techniques. Up close and personal with a famous stellar nursery
    normally seen from 1,500 light-years away, the digitally modeled frame
    transitions from a visible light representation based on Hubble data on
    the left to infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope on the
    right. The perspective at the center looks along a valley over a
    light-year wide, in the wall of the region's giant molecular cloud.
    Orion's valley ends in a cavity carved by the energetic winds and
    radiation of the massive central stars of the Trapezium star cluster.
    The single frame is part of a multiwavelength, three-dimensional video
    that lets the viewer experience an immersive, three minute flight
    through the Great Nebula of Orion.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-dark Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, August 29, 2020 00:13:02
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 29

    Martian Chiaroscuro
    Image Credit: HiRISE, MRO, LPL (U. Arizona), NASA

    Explanation: Deep shadows create dramatic contrasts between light and
    dark in this high-resolution close-up of the martian surface. Recorded
    on January 24, 2014 by the HiRISE camera on board the Mars
    Reconnaissance Orbiter, the scene spans about 1.5 kilometers. From 250
    kilometers above the Red Planet the camera is looking down at a sand
    dune field in a southern highlands crater. Captured when the Sun was
    about 5 degrees above the local horizon, only the dune crests were
    caught in full sunlight. A long, cold winter was coming to the southern
    hemisphere and bright ridges of seasonal frost line the martian dunes.
    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, one of the oldest operating spacecraft
    at the Red Planet, celebrated the 15th anniversary of its launch from
    planet Earth on August 12.

    Tomorrow's picture: cathedral to the stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, August 30, 2020 00:11:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 30

    NGC 6357: Cathedral to Massive Stars
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA and Jess Maz Apellniz (IAA, Spain);
    Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin (ESA/Hubble)

    Explanation: How massive can a normal star be? Estimates made from
    distance, brightness and standard solar models had given one star in
    the open cluster Pismis 24 over 200 times the mass of our Sun, making
    it one of the most massive stars known. This star is the brightest
    object located just above the gas front in the featured image. Close
    inspection of images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, however,
    have shown that Pismis 24-1 derives its brilliant luminosity not from a
    single star but from three at least. Component stars would still remain
    near 100 solar masses, making them among the more massive stars
    currently on record. Toward the bottom of the image, stars are still
    forming in the associated emission nebula NGC 6357. Appearing perhaps
    like a Gothic cathedral, energetic stars near the center appear to be
    breaking out and illuminating a spectacular cocoon.

    Teachers & Students: Ideas for Utilizing APOD in the Classroom
    Tomorrow's picture: micro-quasar imagined
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, August 31, 2020 00:03:10
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 August 31

    SS 433: Binary Star Micro-Quasar
    Animation Credit: DESY, Science Communication Lab

    Explanation: SS 433 is one of the most exotic star systems known. Its
    unremarkable name stems from its inclusion in a catalog of Milky Way
    stars which emit radiation characteristic of atomic hydrogen. Its
    remarkable behavior stems from a compact object, a black hole or
    neutron star, which has produced an accretion disk with jets. Because
    the disk and jets from SS 433 resemble those surrounding supermassive
    black holes in the centers of distant galaxies, SS 433 is considered a
    micro-quasar. As illustrated in the animated featured video based on
    observational data, a massive, hot, normal star is locked in orbit with
    the compact object. As the video starts, material is shown being
    gravitationally ripped from the normal star and falling onto an
    accretion disk. The central star also blasts out jets of ionized gas in
    opposite directions - each at about 1/4 the speed of light. The video
    then pans out to show a top view of the precessing jets producing an
    expanding spiral. From even greater distances, the dissipating jets are
    then visualized near the heart of supernova remnant W50. Two years ago,
    SS 433 was unexpectedly found by the HAWC detector array in Mexico to
    emit unusually high energy (TeV-range) gamma-rays. Surprises continue,
    as a recent analysis of archival data taken by NASA's Fermi satellite
    find a gamma-ray source -- separated from the central stars as shown --
    that pulses in gamma-rays with a period of 162 days - the same as SS
    433's jet precession period - for reasons yet unknown.

    Teachers & Students: Ideas for utilizing APOD in the classroom.
    Tomorrow's picture: salted asteroid
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, September 01, 2020 00:03:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 1

    Salt Water Remnants on Ceres
    Video Credit: Dawn Mission, NASA, JPL-Caltech, UCLA, MPS/DLR/IDA

    Explanation: Does Ceres have underground pockets of water? Ceres, the
    largest asteroid in the asteroid belt, was thought to be composed of
    rock and ice. At the same time, Ceres was known to have unusual bright
    spots on its surface. These bright spots were clearly imaged during
    Dawn's exciting approach in 2015. Analyses of Dawn images and spectra
    indicated that the bright spots arise from the residue of
    highly-reflective salt water that used to exist on Ceres' surface but
    evaporated. Recent analysis indicates that some of this water may have
    originated from deep inside Ceres, indicating Ceres to be a kindred
    spirit with several Solar System moons, also thought to harbor deep
    water pockets. The featured video shows in false-color pink the bright
    evaporated brine named Cerealia Facula in Occator Crater. In 2018, the
    mission-successful but fuel-depleted Dawn spacecraft was placed in a
    distant parking orbit, keeping it away from the Ceres' surface for at
    least 20 years to avoid interfering with any life that might there
    exist.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: bonus moons
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, September 02, 2020 00:05:55
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 2

    Jupiter and the Moons
    Image Credit & Copyright: Robert Fedez

    Explanation: How many moons do you see? Many people would say one,
    referring to the Earth's Moon, prominent on the lower left. But take a
    closer look at the object on the upper right. That seeming-star is
    actually the planet Jupiter, and your closer look might reveal that it
    is not alone - it is surrounded by some of its largest moons. From left
    to right these Galilean Moons are Io, Ganymende, Europa and Callisto.
    These moons orbit the Jovian world just like the planets of our Solar
    System orbit the Sun, in a line when seen from the side. The featured
    single shot was captured from Cancun, Mexico last week as Luna, in its
    orbit around the Earth, glided past the distant planet. Even better
    views of Jupiter are currently being captured by NASA's Juno
    spacecraft, now in a looping orbit around the Solar System's largest
    planet. Earth's Moon will continue to pass nearly in front of both
    Jupiter and Saturn once a month (moon-th) as the two giant planets
    approach their own great conjunction in December.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, September 03, 2020 00:40:53
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 3

    A Halo for Andromeda
    Digital Illustration Credit: NASA, ESA, J. DePasquale and E. Wheatley
    (STScI) and Z. Levay

    Explanation: M31, the Andromeda Galaxy, is the closest large spiral
    galaxy to our Milky Way. Some 2.5 million light-years distant it shines
    in Earth's night sky as a small, faint, elongated cloud just visible to
    the unaided eye. Invisible to the eye though, its enormous halo of hot
    ionized gas is represented in purplish hues for this digital
    illustration of our neighboring galaxy above rocky terrain. Mapped by
    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the absorption of ultraviolet
    light against distant quasars, the extent and make-up of Andromeda's
    gaseous halo has been recently determined by the AMIGA project. A
    reservoir of material for future star formation, Andromeda's halo of
    diffuse plasma was measured to extend around 1.3 million light-years or
    more from the galaxy. That's about half way to the Milky Way, likely
    putting it in contact with the diffuse gaseous halo of our own galaxy.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, September 04, 2020 00:33:23
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 4

    The Wizard Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Andrew Klinger

    Explanation: Open star cluster NGC 7380 is still embedded in its natal
    cloud of interstellar gas and dust popularly known as the Wizard
    Nebula. Seen on the left, with foreground and background stars along
    the plane of our Milky Way galaxy it lies some 8,000 light-years
    distant, toward the constellation Cepheus. In apparent size on the sky,
    a full moon would cover the 4 million year young cluster and associated
    nebula, normally much too faint to be seen by eye. Made with telescope
    and camera firmly planted on Earth, the image reveals multi light-year
    sized shapes and structures of cosmic gas and dust within the Wizard
    though, in a color palette made popular in Hubble Space Telescope
    images. Recorded with narrowband filters, the visible wavelength light
    from the nebula's hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur atoms is transformed
    into green, blue, and red colors in the final digital composite.

    Tomorrow's picture: moon, landing
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, September 05, 2020 00:03:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 5

    A Falcon 9 Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Katie Darby

    Explanation: Illuminating planet Earth's night, full moons can have
    many names. This year the last full moon of northern hemisphere summer
    was on September 2, known to some as the Full Corn Moon. A few days
    earlier on August 30 this almost full moon rose just before sunset
    though, shining through cloudy skies over Cape Canaveral Air Force
    Station on Florida's Space Coast. A well-timed snapshot caught the
    glare of rocket engines firing below the lunar disk, a Falcon 9
    rocket's first stage successfully returning to Cape Canaveral's landing
    zone 1. About 9 minutes earlier, the same SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket had
    launched the SAOCOM 1B satellite toward polar orbit. The fourth launch
    for this reusable Falcon 9 first stage, it was the first launch to a
    polar orbit from Cape Canaveral since 1969.

    Tomorrow's picture: a cosmic crustacean
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, September 06, 2020 00:16:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 6

    M1: The Crab Nebula from Hubble
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, J. Hester, A. Loll (ASU)

    Explanation: This is the mess that is left when a star explodes. The
    Crab Nebula, the result of a supernova seen in 1054 AD, is filled with
    mysterious filaments. The filaments are not only tremendously complex,
    but appear to have less mass than expelled in the original supernova
    and a higher speed than expected from a free explosion. The featured
    image, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, is presentedi in three
    colors chosen for scientific interest. The Crab Nebula spans about 10
    light-years. In the nebula's very center lies a pulsar: a neutron star
    as massive as the Sun but with only the size of a small town. The Crab
    Pulsar rotates about 30 times each second.

    Tomorrow's picture: path to the castle to the stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, September 07, 2020 00:04:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 7

    The Milky Way over St Michael's Mount
    Image Credit: Simon R. Hudson

    Explanation: Where do land and sky converge? On every horizon -- but in
    this case the path on the ground leads to St Michael's Mount (Cornish:
    Karrek Loos yn Koos), a small historic island in Cornwall, England. The
    Mount is usually surrounded by shallow water, but at low tide is
    spanned by a human-constructed causeway. The path on the sky, actually
    the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy, also appears to lead to St
    Michael's Mount, but really lies far in the distance. The red nebula in
    the Milky Way, just above the castle, is the Lagoon Nebula, while
    bright Jupiter shines to the left, and a luminous meteor flashes to the
    right. The foreground and background images of this featured composite
    were taken on the same July night and from the same location. Although
    meteors are fleeting and the Milky Way disk shifts in the night as the
    Earth turns, Jupiter will remain prominent in the sunset sky into
    December.

    Moon Occults Mars: Notable images submitted to APOD
    Tomorrow's picture: unexpected black holes collide
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, September 08, 2020 00:41:41
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 8

    GW190521: Unexpected Black Holes Collide
    Illustration Credit: Ral Rubio (Virgo Valencia Group, The Virgo
    Collaboration)

    Explanation: How do black holes like this form? The two black holes
    that spiraled together to produce the gravitational wave event GW190521
    were not only the most massive black holes ever seen by LIGO and VIRGO
    so far, their masses -- 66 and 85 solar masses -- were unprecedented
    and unexpected. Lower mass black holes, below about 65 solar masses are
    known to form in supernova explosions. Conversely, higher mass black
    holes, above about 135 solar masses, are thought to be created by very
    massive stars imploding after they use up their weight-bearing
    nuclear-fusion-producing elements. How such intermediate mass black
    holes came to exist is yet unknown, although one hypothesis holds that
    they result from consecutive collisions of stars and black holes in
    dense star clusters. Featured is an illustration of the black holes
    just before collision, annotated with arrows indicating their spin
    axes. In the illustration, the spiral waves indicate the production of
    gravitational radiation, while the surrounding stars highlight the
    possibility that the merger occurred in a star cluster. Seen last year
    but emanating from an epoch when the universe was only about half its
    present age (z ~ 0.8), black hole merger GW190521 is the farthest yet
    detected, to within measurement errors.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,200+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: stellar sisters
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, September 09, 2020 00:47:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 9

    Pleiades: The Seven Sisters Star Cluster
    Image Credit & Copyright: Raul Villaverde Fraile

    Explanation: Have you ever seen the Pleiades star cluster? Even if you
    have, you probably have never seen it as large and clear as this.
    Perhaps the most famous star cluster on the sky, the bright stars of
    the Pleiades can be seen without binoculars from even the depths of a
    light-polluted city. With a long exposure from a dark location, though,
    the dust cloud surrounding the Pleiades star cluster becomes very
    evident. The featured exposure covers a sky area several times the size
    of the full moon. Also known as the Seven Sisters and M45, the Pleiades
    lies about 400 light years away toward the constellation of the Bull
    (Taurus). A common legend with a modern twist is that one of the
    brighter stars faded since the cluster was named, leaving only six of
    the sister stars visible to the unaided eye. The actual number of
    Pleiades stars visible, however, may be more or less than seven,
    depending on the darkness of the surrounding sky and the clarity of the
    observer's eyesight.

    Teachers & Students: Ideas for utilizing APOD in the classroom.
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, September 10, 2020 00:16:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 10

    Jupiter's Swmimming Storm
    Image Credit & Copyright: Andy Casely

    Explanation: A bright storm head with a long turbulent wake swims
    across Jupiter in these sharp telescopic images of the Solar System's
    ruling gas giant. Captured on August 26, 28, and September 1 (left to
    right) the storm approximately doubles in length during that period.
    Stretching along the jetstream of the planet's North Temperate Belt it
    travels eastward in successive frames, passing the Great Red Spot and
    whitish Oval BA, famous storms in Jupiter's southern hemisphere.
    Galilean moons Callisto and Io are caught in the middle frame. In fact,
    telescopic skygazers following Jupiter in planet Earth's night have
    reported dramatic fast moving storm outbreaks over the past few weeks
    in Jupiter's North Temperate Belt.

    Tomorrow's picture: Moon occults Mars again
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, September 11, 2020 01:18:27
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 11

    The Reappearance of Mars
    Image Credit & Copyright: David Duarte and Romualdo Caldas

    Explanation: Mars reappears just beyond the Moon's dark limb in this
    stack of sharp video frames captured on September 6. Of course to
    reappear it had to disappear in the first place. It did that over an
    hour earlier when the sunlit southern edge of the waning gibbous Moon
    passed in front of the Red Planet as seen from Maceio, Brazil. The
    lunar occultation came as the Moon was near apogee, about 400,000
    kilometers away. Mars was almost 180 times more distant. It was the
    fourth lunar occultation of Mars visible from planet Earth in 2020.
    Visible from some southern latitudes, the fifth lunar occultation of
    Mars in 2020 will take place on October 3 when the Moon and Mars are
    both nearly opposite the Sun in planet Earth's sky.

    Tomorrow's picture: 1,000 Meteors
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, September 13, 2020 00:32:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 13

    M2-9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula
    Image Credit: Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA, ESA - Processing: Judy
    Schmidt

    Explanation: Are stars better appreciated for their art after they die?
    Actually, stars usually create their most artistic displays as they
    die. In the case of low-mass stars like our Sun and M2-9 pictured here,
    the stars transform themselves from normal stars to white dwarfs by
    casting off their outer gaseous envelopes. The expended gas frequently
    forms an impressive display called a planetary nebula that fades
    gradually over thousands of years. M2-9, a butterfly planetary nebula
    2100 light-years away shown in representative colors, has wings that
    tell a strange but incomplete tale. In the center, two stars orbit
    inside a gaseous disk 10 times the orbit of Pluto. The expelled
    envelope of the dying star breaks out from the disk creating the
    bipolar appearance. Much remains unknown about the physical processes
    that cause and shape planetary nebulae.

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: corny moonrise
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, September 14, 2020 00:04:07
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 14

    Corn Moon Rising
    Image Credit & Copyright: Zarcos Palma

    Explanation: A rising moon can be a dramatic sight. A rising Full Corn
    Moon was captured early this month in time-lapse with a telephoto lens
    from nearly 30 kilometers away -- making Earth's ascending half-degree
    companion appear unusually impressive. The image was captured from
    Portugal, although much of the foreground -- including lights from the
    village of Puebla de Guzmn -- is in Spain. A Full Corn Moon is the
    name attributed to a full moon at this time of year by cultures of some
    northern indigenous peoples of the Americas, as it coincides with the
    ripening of corn. Note that the Moon does not appear larger when it is
    nearer the horizon -- its seemingly larger size there is only an
    illusion. The next full moon -- occurring at the beginning of next
    month -- will be known as the Full Harvest Moon as it occurs nearest in
    time to the northern autumnal equinox and the northern field harvests.

    Tomorrow's picture: asteroid ejection
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, September 15, 2020 00:56:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 15

    Biomarker Phosphine Discovered in the Atmosphere of Venus
    Image Credit: ISAS, JAXA, Akatsuki; Processing: Meli thev

    Explanation: Could there be life floating in the atmosphere of Venus?
    Although Earth's planetary neighbor has a surface considered too
    extreme for any known lifeform, Venus' upper atmosphere may be
    sufficiently mild for tiny airborne microbes. This usually disfavored
    prospect took an unexpected upturn yesterday with the announcement of
    the discovery of Venusian phosphine. The chemical phosphine (PH3) is a
    considered a biomarker because it seems so hard to create from routine
    chemical processes thought to occur on or around a rocky world such as
    Venus -- but it is known to be created by microbial life on Earth. The
    featured image of Venus and its thick clouds was taken in two bands of
    ultraviolet light by the Venus-orbing Akatsuki, a Japanese robotic
    satellite that has been orbiting the cloud-shrouded world since 2015.
    The phosphine finding, if confirmed, may set off renewed interest in
    searching for other indications of life floating high in the atmosphere
    of our Solar System's second planet out from the Sun.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: asteroid ejection
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, September 16, 2020 00:19:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 16

    Gravel Ejected from Asteroid Bennu
    Image Credit: NASA's GSFC, U. Arizona, OSIRIS-REx Lockheed Martin

    Explanation: Why does asteroid Bennu eject gravel into space? No one is
    sure. The discovery, occurring during several episodes by NASA's
    visiting ORISIS-REx spacecraft, was unexpected. Leading ejection
    hypotheses include impacts by Sun-orbiting meteoroids, sudden thermal
    fractures of internal structures, and the sudden release of a water
    vapor jet. The featured two-image composite shows an ejection event
    that occurred in early 2019, with sun-reflecting ejecta seen on the
    right. Data and simulations show that large gravel typically falls
    right back to the rotating 500-meter asteroid, while smaller rocks skip
    around the surface, and the smallest rocks completely escape the low
    gravity of the Earth approaching, diamond-shaped asteroid. Jets and
    surface ejection events were thought to be predominantly the domain of
    comets, responsible for their tails, comas, and later meteor showers on
    Earth. Robotic OSIRIS-REx arrived at 101955 Bennu in late 2018, and is
    planned to touchdown to collect a surface sample in October 2020. If
    all goes well, this sample will then be returned to Earth for a
    detailed analysis during 2023. Bennu was chosen as the destination for
    OSIRIS-REx in part because its surface shows potential to reveal
    organic compounds from the early days of our Solar System, compounds
    that could have been the building blocks for life on Earth.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: cycle 25
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, September 17, 2020 00:22:03
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 17

    Solar Cycle 25 Has Begun
    Image Credit: NASA, SDO

    Explanation: The general trend of monthly sunspot data now confirms
    that the minimum of the approximately 11 year cycle of solar activity
    occurred in December 2019, marking the start of Solar Cycle 25. That
    quiet Sun, at minimum activity, appears on the right of this split
    hemispherical view. In contrast, the left side shows the active Sun at
    the recognized maximum of Solar Cycle 24, captured in April 2014. The
    extreme ultraviolet images from the orbiting Solar Dynamics Observatory
    highlight coronal loops and active regions in the light of highly
    ionized iron atoms. Driving the space weather around our fair planet,
    Solar Cycle 24 was a relatively calm one and predictions are that cycle
    25 will be calm too. The cycle 25 activity maximum is expected in July
    2025. Solar Cycle 1, the first solar cycle determined from early
    records of sunspot data, is considered to begin with a minimum in
    February 1755.

    Tomorrow's picture: 3D Orion
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, September 18, 2020 00:17:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 18

    Arp 78: Peculiar Galaxy in Aries
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bernard Miller

    Explanation: (xxxedit and linkxxx) Peculiar spiral galaxy Arp 78 is
    found within the boundaries of the head strong constellation Aries,
    some 100 million light-years beyond the stars and nebulae of our Milky
    Way galaxy. Also known as NGC 772, the island universe is over 100,000
    light-years across and sports a single prominent outer spiral arm in
    this detailed cosmic portrait. Its brightest companion galaxy, compact
    NGC 770, is toward the upper right of the larger spiral. NGC 770's
    fuzzy, elliptical appearance contrasts nicely with a spiky foreground
    Milky Way star in matching yellowish hues. Tracking along sweeping dust
    lanes and lined with young blue star clusters, Arp 78's large spiral
    arm is likely due to gravitational tidal interactions. Faint streams of
    material seem to connect Arp 78 with its nearby companion galaxies.

    Tomorrow's picture: 3D Orion
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, September 19, 2020 00:26:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 19

    Orion in Depth
    Illustration Credit & Copyright: Ronald Davison

    Explanation: Orion is a familiar constellation. The apparent positions
    of its stars in two dimensions create a well-known pattern on the bowl
    of planet Earth's night sky. Orion may not look quite so familiar in
    this 3D view though. The illustration reconstructs the relative
    positions of Orion's bright stars, including data from the Hipparcus
    catalog of parallax distances. The most distant star shown is Alnilam.
    The middle one in the projected line of three that make up Orion's belt
    when viewed from planet Earth, Alnilam is nearly 2,000 light-years
    away, almost 3 times as far as fellow belt stars Alnitak and Mintaka.
    Though Rigel and Betelgeuse apparently shine brighter in planet Earth's
    sky, that makes more distant Alnilam intrinsically (in absolute
    magnitude) the brightest of the familiar stars in Orion. In the
    Hipparcus catalog, errors in measured parallaxes for Orion's stars can
    translate in to distance errors of a 100 light-years or so.

    Tomorrow's picture: breaking distant light
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, September 20, 2020 00:23:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 20

    Breaking Distant Light
    Image Credit: VIMOS, VLT, ESO

    Explanation: In the distant universe, time appears to run slowly. Since
    time-dilated light appears shifted toward the red end of the spectrum
    (redshifted), astronomers are able to use cosmological time-slowing to
    help measure vast distances in the universe. Featured, the light from
    distant galaxies has been broken up into its constituent colors
    (spectra), allowing astronomers to measure the cosmological redshift of
    known spectral lines. The novelty of the featured image is that the
    distance to hundreds of galaxies can be measured from a single frame,
    in this case one taken by the Visible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS)
    operating at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) array in Chile. Analyzing
    the space distribution of distant objects will allow insight into when
    and how stars and galaxies formed, clustered, and evolved in the early
    universe.

    Tomorrow's picture: omega sun sailing
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, September 21, 2020 00:55:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 21

    Omega Sunrise
    Image Credit & Copyright: Juan Antonio Sendra

    Explanation: Capturing this sunrise required both luck and timing.
    First and foremost, precise timing was needed to capture a sailboat
    crossing right in front of a rising Sun. Additionally, by a lucky
    coincidence, the background Sun itself appears unusual -- it looks like
    the Greek letter Omega (W*). In reality, the Sun remained its circular
    self -- the Omega illusion was created by sunlight refracting through
    warm air just above the water. Optically, the feet of the capital Omega
    are actually an inverted image of the Sun region just above it.
    Although somewhat rare, optical effects caused by the Earth's
    atmosphere can make distant objects near the horizon -- including the
    Sun and Moon -- look quite unusual. This single exposure image was
    taken over the Mediterranean Sea just over two weeks ago near Valencia,
    Spain.

    Tomorrow's picture: equal sun arcs
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, September 22, 2020 00:12:23
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 22

    Equinox in the Sky
    Image Credit & Copyright: Luca Vanzella

    Explanation: Does the Sun set in the same direction every day? No, the
    direction of sunset depends on the time of the year. Although the Sun
    always sets approximately toward the west, on an equinox like today the
    Sun sets directly toward the west. After today's September equinox, the
    Sun will set increasingly toward the southwest, reaching its maximum
    displacement at the December solstice. Before today's September
    equinox, the Sun had set toward the northwest, reaching its maximum
    displacement at the June solstice. The featured time-lapse image shows
    seven bands of the Sun setting one day each month from 2019 December
    through 2020 June. These image sequences were taken from Alberta,
    Canada -- well north of the Earth's equator -- and feature the city of
    Edmonton in the foreground. The middle band shows the Sun setting
    during the last equinox -- in March. From this location, the Sun will
    set along this same equinox band again today.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, September 23, 2020 00:31:51
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 23

    ISS Transits Mars
    Image Credit & Copyright: Tom Glenn

    Explanation: Yes, but have you ever seen the space station do this? If
    you know when and where to look, watching the bright International
    Space Station (ISS) drift across your night sky is a fascinating sight
    -- but not very unusual. Images of the ISS crossing in front of the
    half-degree Moon or Sun do exist, but are somewhat rare as they take
    planning, timing, and patience to acquire. Catching the ISS crossing in
    front of minuscule Mars, though, is on another level. Using online
    software, the featured photographer learned that the unusual transit
    would be visible only momentarily along a very narrow stretch of nearby
    land spanning just 90 meters. Within this stretch, the equivalent
    ground velocity of the passing ISS image would be a quick 7.4
    kilometers per second. However, with a standard camera, a small
    telescope, an exact location to set up his equipment, an exact
    direction to point the telescope, and sub-millisecond timing -- he
    created a video from which the featured 0.00035 second exposure was
    extracted. In the resulting image capture, details on both Mars and the
    ISS are visible simultaneously. The featured image was acquired last
    Monday at 05:15:47 local time from just northeast of San Diego,
    California, USA. Although typically much smaller, angularly, than the
    ISS, Mars is approaching its maximum angular size in the next few
    weeks, because the blue planet (Earth) is set to pass its closest to
    the red planet (Mars) in their respective orbits around the Sun.

    Portal Universe: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, September 24, 2020 00:51:17
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 24

    Enceladus in Infrared
    Image Credit: VIMS Team, SSI, U. Arizona, U. Nantes, ESA, NASA

    Explanation: One of our Solar System's most tantalizing worlds, icy
    Saturnian moon Enceladus appears in these detailed hemisphere views
    from the Cassini spacecraft. In false color, the five panels present 13
    years of infrared image data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping
    Spectrometer and Imaging Science Subsystem. Fresh ice is colored red,
    and the most dramatic features look like long gashes in the 500
    kilometer diameter moon's south polar region. They correspond to the
    location of tiger stripes, surface fractures that likely connect to an
    ocean beneath the Enceladus ice shell. The fractures are the source of
    the moon's icy plumes that continuously spew into space. The plumes
    were discovered by by Cassini in 2005. Now, reddish hues in the
    northern half of the leading hemisphere view also indicate a recent
    resurfacing of other regions of the geologically active moon, a world
    that may hold conditions suitable for life.

    Experts Debate: How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?
    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, September 25, 2020 00:23:59
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 25

    Moon over Andromeda
    Composite Image Credit & Copyright: Adam Block and Tim Puckett

    Explanation: The Great Spiral Galaxy in Andromeda (also known as M31),
    a mere 2.5 million light-years distant, is the closest large spiral to
    our own Milky Way. Andromeda is visible to the unaided eye as a small,
    faint, fuzzy patch, but because its surface brightness is so low,
    casual skygazers can't appreciate the galaxy's impressive extent in
    planet Earth's sky. This entertaining composite image compares the
    angular size of the nearby galaxy to a brighter, more familiar
    celestial sight. In it, a deep exposure of Andromeda, tracing beautiful
    blue star clusters in spiral arms far beyond the bright yellow core, is
    combined with a typical view of a nearly full Moon. Shown at the same
    angular scale, the Moon covers about 1/2 degree on the sky, while the
    galaxy is clearly several times that size. The deep Andromeda exposure
    also includes two bright satellite galaxies, M32 and M110 (below and
    right).

    Tomorrow's picture: Observe the Moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, September 26, 2020 00:33:13
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 26

    Moon Pairs and the Synodic Month
    Image Credit & Copyright: Marcella Giulia Pace

    Explanation: Observe the Moon each night and its visible sunlit portion
    will gradually change. In phases progressing from New Moon to Full Moon
    to New Moon again, a lunar cycle or synodic month is completed in about
    29.5 days. They look full, but top left to bottom right these panels do
    show the range of lunar phases for a complete synodic month during
    August 2019 from Ragusa, Sicily, Italy, planet Earth. For this lunar
    cycle project the panels organize images of the lunar phases in pairs.
    Each individual image is paired with another image separated by about
    15 days, or approximately half a synodic month. As a result the
    opposite sunlit portions complete the lunar disk and the shadow line at
    the boundary of lunar night and day, the terminator, steadily marches
    across the Moon's familiar nearside. For extra credit, what lunar phase
    would you pair with the Moon tonight?

    Tomorrow's picture: cloudy skies
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, September 27, 2020 00:20:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 27

    Lightning over Colorado
    Image Credit & Copyright: Joe Randall

    Explanation: Have you ever watched a lightning storm in awe? Join the
    crowd. Oddly, details about how lightning is produced remains a topic
    of research. What is known is that updrafts carry light ice crystals
    into collisions with larger and softer ice balls, causing the smaller
    crystals to become positively charged. After enough charge becomes
    separated, the rapid electrical discharge that is lightning occurs.
    Lightning usually takes a jagged course, rapidly heating a thin column
    of air to about three times the surface temperature of the Sun. The
    resulting shock wave starts supersonically and decays into the loud
    sound known as thunder. Lightning bolts are common in clouds during
    rainstorms, and on average 44 lightning bolts occur on the Earth every
    second. Pictured, over 60 images were stacked to capture the flow of
    lightning-producing storm clouds in July over Colorado Springs,
    Colorado, USA.

    Follow APOD in English on: Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter
    Tomorrow's picture: stellar ribbons
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, September 28, 2020 00:26:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 28

    Filaments of the Cygnus Loop
    Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Blair; Acknowledgement: Leo Shatz

    Explanation: What lies at the edge of an expanding supernova? Subtle
    and delicate in appearance, these ribbons of shocked interstellar gas
    are part of a blast wave at the expanding edge of a violent stellar
    explosion that would have been easily visible to humans during the late
    stone age, about 20,000 years ago. The featured image was recorded by
    the Hubble Space Telescope and is a closeup of the outer edge of a
    supernova remnant known as the Cygnus Loop or Veil Nebula. The
    filamentary shock front is moving toward the top of the frame at about
    170 kilometers per second, while glowing in light emitted by atoms of
    excited hydrogen gas. The distances to stars thought to be interacting
    with the Cygnus Loop have recently been found by the Gaia mission to be
    about 2400 light years distant. The whole Cygnus Loop spans six full
    Moons across the sky, corresponding to about 130 light years, and parts
    can be seen with a small telescope toward the constellation of the Swan
    (Cygnus).

    Tomorrow's picture: tilted planets
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, September 29, 2020 00:18:04
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 29

    GW Orionis: A Star System with Titled Rings
    Animation Illustration Credit: ESO, U. Exeter, S. Kraus et al., L.
    Calada

    Explanation: Triple star system GW Orionis appears to demonstrate that
    planets can form and orbit in multiple planes. In contrast, all the
    planets and moons in our Solar System orbit in nearly the same plane.
    The picturesque system has three prominent stars, a warped disk, and
    inner tilted rings of gas and grit. The featured animation
    characterizes the GW Ori system from observations with the European
    Southern Observatory's VLT and ALMA telescopes in Chile. The first part
    of the illustrative video shows a grand vista of the entire system from
    a distant orbit, while the second sequence takes you inside the tilted
    rings to resolve the three central co-orbiting stars. Computer
    simulations indicate that multiple stars in systems like GW Ori could
    warp and break-up disks into unaligned, exoplanet-forming rings.

    Tomorrow's picture: ear of the eagle
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, September 30, 2020 00:13:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 September 30

    Sonified: Eagle Nebula Pillars
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, & The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA);
    Sonification: NASA, CXC, SAO, K. Arcand, M. Russo & A. Santaguida

    Explanation: Yes, but have you ever experienced the Eagle Nebula with
    your ears ? The famous nebula, M16, is best known for the feast it
    gives your eyes, highlighting bright young stars forming deep inside
    dark towering structures. These light-years long columns of cold gas
    and dust are some 6,500 light-years distant toward the constellation of
    the Serpent (Serpens). Sculpted and eroded by the energetic ultraviolet
    light and powerful winds from M16's cluster of massive stars, the
    cosmic pillars themselves are destined for destruction. But the
    turbulent environment of star formation within M16, whose spectacular
    details are captured in this combined Hubble (visible) and Chandra
    (X-ray) image, is likely similar to the environment that formed our own
    Sun. In the featured video, listen for stars and dust sounding off as
    the line of sonification moves left to right, with vertical position
    determining pitch.

    Tomorrow's picture: the eye of Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, October 01, 2020 00:04:05
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 1

    Solis Lacus: The Eye of Mars
    Image Credit & Copyright: Damian Peach

    Explanation: As telescopes around planet Earth watch, Mars is growing
    brighter in night skies, approaching its 2020 opposition on October 13.
    Mars looks like its watching too in this view of the Red Planet from
    September 22. Mars' disk is already near its maximum apparent size for
    earthbound telescopes, less than 1/80th the apparent diameter of a Full
    Moon. The seasonally shrinking south polar cap is at the bottom and
    hazy northern clouds are at the top. A circular, dark albedo feature,
    Solis Lacus (Lake of the Sun), is just below and left of disk center.
    Surrounded by a light area south of Valles Marineris, Solis Lacus looks
    like a planet-sized pupil, famously known as The Eye of Mars . Near the
    turn of the 20th century, astronomer and avid Mars watcher Percival
    Lowell associated the Eye of Mars with a conjunction of canals he
    charted in his drawings of the Red Planet. Broad, visible changes in
    the size and shape of the Eye of Mars are now understood from high
    resolution surface images to be due to dust transported by winds in the
    thin Martian atmosphere.

    Tomorrow's picture: harvest moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, October 02, 2020 00:28:37
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 2

    Biking to the Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Susan Snow

    Explanation: As you watched October's first Full Moon rise last night,
    the Full Moon closest to the northern autumnal equinox, you were
    probably asking yourself, "How long would it take to bike to the Moon?"
    Sure, Apollo 11 astronauts made the trip in 1969, from launch to Moon
    landing, in about 103 hours or 4.3 days. But the Moon is 400,000
    kilometers away. This year, the top bike riders in planet Earth's
    well-known Tour de France race covered almost 3,500 kilometers in 21
    stages after about 87 hours on the road. That gives an average speed of
    about 40 kilometers per hour and a lunar cycling travel time of 10,000
    hours, a little over 416 days. While this bike rider's destination
    isn't clear, his journey did begin around moonrise on September 27 near
    Cleeve Hill, Bishops Cleeve, Cheltenham, UK.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, October 03, 2020 00:03:26
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 3

    Driving to the Sun
    Image Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory, NASA

    Explanation: How long would it take to drive to the Sun? Brittany age
    7, and D.J. age 12, ponder this question over dinner one evening. James
    also age 7, suggests taking a really fast racing car while Christopher
    age 4, eagerly agrees. Jerry, a really old guy who is used to
    estimating driving time on family trips based on distance divided by
    speed, offers to do the numbers. "Let's see ... the Sun is 93 million
    miles away. If we drove 93 miles per hour the trip would only take us 1
    million hours." How long is 1 million hours? One year is 365 days times
    24 hours per day, or 8,760 hours. One hundred years would be 876,000
    hours, but that's still a little short of the 1 million hour drive
    time. So the Sun is really quite far away. Christopher is not
    impressed, but as he grows older he will be. You've got to be impressed
    by something that's 93 million miles away and still hurts your eyes
    when you look at it!

    Tomorrow's picture: nearby stellar nursery
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, October 04, 2020 00:17:06
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 4

    Orion Nebula in Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Sulfur
    Image Credit & Copyright: Csar Blanco Gonzlez

    Explanation: Few astronomical sights excite the imagination like the
    nearby stellar nursery known as the Orion Nebula. The Nebula's glowing
    gas surrounds hot young stars at the edge of an immense interstellar
    molecular cloud. Many of the filamentary structures visible in the
    featured image are actually shock waves - fronts where fast moving
    material encounters slow moving gas. The Orion Nebula spans about 40
    light years and is located about 1500 light years away in the same
    spiral arm of our Galaxy as the Sun. The Great Nebula in Orion can be
    found with the unaided eye just below and to the left of the easily
    identifiable belt of three stars in the popular constellation Orion.
    The image shows the nebula in three colors specifically emitted by
    hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur gas. The whole Orion Nebula cloud complex,
    which includes the Horsehead Nebula, will slowly disperse over the next
    100,000 years.

    Tomorrow's picture: hubble spiral
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, October 05, 2020 00:06:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 5

    NGC 5643: Nearby Spiral Galaxy from Hubble
    Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, A. Riess et al.; Acknowledgement:
    Mahdi Zamani

    Explanation: What's happening at the center of spiral galaxy NGC 5643?
    A swirling disk of stars and gas, NGC 5643's appearance is dominated by
    blue spiral arms and brown dust, as shown in the featured image taken
    by the Hubble Space Telescope. The core of this active galaxy glows
    brightly in radio waves and X-rays where twin jets have been found. An
    unusual central glow makes M106 one of the closest examples of the
    Seyfert class of galaxies, where vast amounts of glowing gas are
    thought to be falling into a central massive black hole. NGC 5643, is a
    relatively close 55 million light years away, spans about 100 thousand
    light years across, and can be seen with a small telescope towards the
    constellation of the Wolf (Lupus).

    Tomorrow's picture: big mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, October 07, 2020 00:17:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 7

    Ou4: A Giant Squid in a Flying Bat
    Image Credit & Copyright: Yannick Akar

    Explanation: A very faint but very large squid-like nebula is visible
    in planet Earth's sky -- but inside a still larger bat. The Giant Squid
    Nebula cataloged as Ou4, and Sh2-129 also known as the Flying Bat
    Nebula, are both caught in this cosmic scene toward the royal royal
    constellation Cepheus. Composed with 55 hours of narrowband image data,
    the telescopic field of view is 3 degrees or 6 Full Moons across.
    Discovered in 2011 by French astro-imager Nicolas Outters, the Squid
    Nebula's alluring bipolar shape is distinguished here by the telltale
    blue-green emission from doubly ionized oxygen atoms. Though apparently
    completely surrounded by the reddish hydrogen emission region Sh2-129,
    the true distance and nature of the Squid Nebula have been difficult to
    determine. Still, a more recent investigation suggests Ou4 really does
    lie within Sh2-129 some 2,300 light-years away. Consistent with that
    scenario, Ou4 would represent a spectacular outflow driven by HR8119, a
    triple system of hot, massive stars seen near the center of the nebula.
    The truly giant Squid Nebula would physically be nearly 50 light-years
    across.

    New: APOD Mirror in Turkish from Rasyonalist
    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, October 08, 2020 00:33:47
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 8

    Mare Frigoris
    Image Credit & Copyright: Matt Smith

    Explanation: Lighter than typically dark, smooth, mare the Mare
    Frigoris lies in the far lunar north. Also known as the Sea of Cold, it
    stretches across the familiar lunar nearside in this close up of the
    waxing gibbous Moon's north polar region. Dark-floored, 95 kilometer
    wide crater Plato is just left of the center. Sunlit peaks of the lunar
    Alps (Montes Alpes) are highlighted below and right of Plato, between
    the more southern Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) and Mare Frigoris. The
    prominent straight feature cutting through the mountains is the lunar
    Alpine Valley (Vallis Alpes). Joining the Mare Imbrium and Mare
    Frigoris, the lunar valley is about 160 kilometers long and up to 10
    kilometers wide.

    Tomorrow's picture: a very large array
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, October 09, 2020 00:21:11
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 9

    The Very Large Array at Moonset
    Image Credit: Jeff Hellermann, NRAO / AUI / NSF

    Explanation: An inspirational sight, these giant dish antennas of the
    Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) rise above the New Mexico desert
    at moonset. Mounted on piers but transportable on railroad tracks to
    change the VLA's configuration, its 27 operating antennas are each
    house-sized (25 meters across) and can be organized into an array
    spanning the size of a city (35 kilometers). A prolific radio astronomy
    workhorse, the VLA has been used to discover water on planet Mercury,
    radio-bright coronae around stars, micro-quasars in our Galaxy,
    gravitationally-induced Einstein rings around distant galaxies, and
    radio counterparts to cosmologically distant gamma-ray bursts. Its vast
    size has allowed astronomers to study the details of radio galaxies,
    super-fast cosmic jets, and map the center of our own Milky Way. Now 40
    years since its dedication the VLA has been used in more than 14,000
    observing projects and contributed to more than 500 Ph.D.
    dissertations. On October 10, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory
    will host a day-long online celebration of the VLA at 40 featuring
    virtual tours and presentations on the history, operations, science,
    and future of the Very Large Array.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, October 10, 2020 00:36:08
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 10

    Virgo Cluster Galaxies
    Image Credit & Copyright: Fernando Pena

    Explanation: Galaxies of the Virgo Cluster are scattered across this
    deep telescopic field of view. The cosmic scene spans about three Full
    Moons, captured in dark skies near Jalisco, Mexico, planet Earth. About
    50 million light-years distant, the Virgo Cluster is the closest large
    galaxy cluster to our own local galaxy group. Prominent here are
    Virgo's bright elliptical galaxies from the Messier catalog, M87 at the
    top left, and M84 and M86 seen (bottom to top) below and right of
    center. M84 and M86 are recognized as part of Markarian's Chain, a
    visually striking line-up of galaxies vertically on the right side of
    this frame. Near the middle of the chain lies an intriguing interacting
    pair of galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, known to some as Markarian's
    Eyes. Of course giant elliptical galaxy M87 dominates the Virgo
    cluster. It's the home of a super massive black hole, the first black
    hole ever imaged by planet Earth's Event Horizon Telescope.

    Tomorrow's picture: pinnacles of sky
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, October 11, 2020 00:34:27
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 11

    Milky Way over the Pinnacles in Australia
    Image Credit & Copyright: Michael Goh

    Explanation: What strange world is this? Earth. In the foreground of
    the featured image are the Pinnacles, unusual rock spires in Nambung
    National Park in Western Australia. Made of ancient sea shells
    (limestone), how these human-sized picturesque spires formed remains
    unknown. In the background, just past the end of the central Pinnacle,
    is a bright crescent Moon. The eerie glow around the Moon is mostly
    zodiacal light, sunlight reflected by dust grains orbiting between the
    planets in the Solar System. Arching across the top is the central band
    of our Milky Way Galaxy. Many famous stars and nebulas are also visible
    in the background night sky. The featured 29-panel panorama was taken
    and composed in 2015 September after detailed planning that involved
    the Moon, the rock spires, and their corresponding shadows. Even so,
    the strong zodiacal light was a pleasant surprise.

    Tomorrow's picture: asteroid descent
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, October 12, 2020 00:34:50
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 12

    Descending Toward Asteroid Bennu
    Video Credit: NASA, OSIRIS-REx, NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio;
    Data: NASA, U. Arizona, CSA, York U., MDA

    Explanation: What would it be like to land on an asteroid? Although no
    human has yet done it, NASA's robotic OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is
    scheduled to attempt to touch the surface of asteroid 101955 Bennu next
    week. The goal is to collect a sample from the nearby minor planet for
    return to Earth for a detailed analysis in 2023. The featured video
    shows what it looks like to descend toward the 500-meter diamond-shaped
    asteroid, based on a digital map of Bennu's rocky surface constructed
    from image and surface data taken by OSIRIS-REx over the past 1.5
    years. The video begins by showing a rapidly spinning Bennu -- much
    faster than its real rotation period of 4.3 hours. After the rotation
    stops, the virtual camera drops you down to just above the rugged
    surface and circles a house-sized rock outcrop named Simurgh, with the
    flatter outcrop Roc visible behind it. If the return sample reaches
    Earth successfully, it will be scrutinized for organic compounds that
    might have seeded a young Earth, rare or unusual elements and minerals,
    and clues about the early history of our Solar System.

    Tomorrow's picture: opposing Mars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, October 13, 2020 00:11:45
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 13

    Mars, Pleiades, and Andromeda over Stone Lions
    Image Credit & Copyright: Cem zkeser

    Explanation: Three very different -- and very famous -- objects were
    all captured in a single frame last month. On the upper left is the
    bright blue Pleiades, perhaps the most famous cluster of stars on the
    night sky. The Pleiades (M45) is about 450 light years away and easily
    found a few degrees from Orion. On the upper right is the expansive
    Andromeda Galaxy, perhaps the most famous galaxy -- external to our own
    -- on the night sky. Andromeda (M31) is one of few objects visible to
    the unaided eye where you can see light that is millions of years old.
    In the middle is bright red Mars, perhaps the most famous planet on the
    night sky. Today Mars is at opposition, meaning that it is opposite the
    Sun, with the result that it is visible all night long. In the
    foreground is an ancient tomb in the Phygrian Valley in Turkey. The
    tomb, featuring two stone lions, is an impressive remnant of a powerful
    civilization that lived thousands of years ago. Mars, currently near
    its brightest, can be easily found toward the east just after sunset.

    Tomorrow's picture: a colorful space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, October 14, 2020 00:21:48
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 14

    The Colorful Clouds of Rho Ophiuchi
    Image Credit & Copyright: Amir H. Abolfath

    Explanation: The many spectacular colors of the Rho Ophiuchi
    (oh'-fee-yu-kee) clouds highlight the many processes that occur there.
    The blue regions shine primarily by reflected light. Blue light from
    the Rho Ophiuchi star system and nearby stars reflects more efficiently
    off this portion of the nebula than red light. The Earth's daytime sky
    appears blue for the same reason. The red and yellow regions shine
    primarily because of emission from the nebula's atomic and molecular
    gas. Light from nearby blue stars - more energetic than the bright star
    Antares - knocks electrons away from the gas, which then shines when
    the electrons recombine with the gas. The dark brown regions are caused
    by dust grains - born in young stellar atmospheres - which effectively
    block light emitted behind them. The Rho Ophiuchi star clouds, well in
    front of the globular cluster M4 visible here on the upper right, are
    even more colorful than humans can see - the clouds emits light in
    every wavelength band from the radio to the gamma-ray.

    Astrophysicists: Browse 2,200+ codes in the Astrophysics Source Code
    Library
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, October 15, 2020 00:35:33
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 15

    Galaxies in Pegasus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Robert Eder

    Explanation: This sharp telescopic view reveals galaxies scattered
    beyond the stars of the Milky Way, at the northern boundary of the
    high-flying constellation Pegasus. Prominent at the upper right is NGC
    7331. A mere 50 million light-years away, the large spiral is one of
    the brighter galaxies not included in Charles Messier's famous 18th
    century catalog. The disturbed looking group of galaxies at the lower
    left is well-known as Stephan's Quintet. About 300 million light-years
    distant, the quintet dramatically illustrates a multiple galaxy
    collision, its powerful, ongoing interactions posed for a brief cosmic
    snapshot. On the sky, the quintet and NGC 7331 are separated by about
    half a degree.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, October 16, 2020 00:45:01
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 16

    Planetary Nebula Abell 78
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bernhard Hubl

    Explanation: Planetary nebula Abell 78 stands out in this colorful
    telescopic skyscape. In fact the colors of the spiky Milky Way stars
    depend on their surface temperatures, both cooler (yellowish) and
    hotter (bluish) than the Sun. But Abell 78 shines by the characteristic
    emission of ionized atoms in the tenuous shroud of material shrugged
    off from an intensely hot central star. The atoms are ionized, their
    electrons stripped away, by the central star's energetic but otherwise
    invisible ultraviolet light. The visible blue-green glow of loops and
    filaments in the nebula's central region corresponds to emission from
    doubly ionized oxygen atoms, surrounded by strong red emission from
    ionized hydrogen. Some 5,000 light-years distant toward the
    constellation Cygnus, Abell 78 is about three light-years across. A
    planetary nebula like Abell 78 represents a very brief final phase in
    stellar evolution that our own Sun will experience ... in about 5
    billion years.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, October 17, 2020 00:39:51
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 17

    Cygnus: Bubble and Crescent
    Image Credit & Copyright: Wissam Ayoub

    Explanation: These clouds of gas and dust drift through rich star
    fields along the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy toward the high flying
    constellation Cygnus. Caught within the telescopic field of view are
    the Soap Bubble (lower left) and the Crescent Nebula (upper right).
    Both were formed at a final phase in the life of a star. Also known as
    NGC 6888, the Crescent was shaped as its bright, central massive
    Wolf-Rayet star, WR 136, shed its outer envelope in a strong stellar
    wind. Burning through fuel at a prodigious rate, WR 136 is near the end
    of a short life that should finish in a spectacular supernova
    explosion. Discovered in 2013, the Soap Bubble Nebula is likely a
    planetary nebula, the final shroud of a lower mass, long-lived,
    sun-like star destined to become a slowly cooling white dwarf. Both
    stellar shrouds are 5,000 light-years or so distant. The larger
    Crescent Nebula is around 25 light-years across.

    Tomorrow's picture: pretty wild ...
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, October 18, 2020 00:05:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 18

    UGC 1810: Wildly Interacting Galaxy from Hubble
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, HLA; Processing & Copyright: Domingo
    Pestana

    Explanation: What's happening to this spiral galaxy? Although details
    remain uncertain, it surely has to do with an ongoing battle with its
    smaller galactic neighbor. The featured galaxy is labelled UGC 1810 by
    itself, but together with its collisional partner is known as Arp 273.
    The overall shape of UGC 1810 -- in particular its blue outer ring --
    is likely a result of wild and violent gravitational interactions. This
    ring's blue color is caused by massive stars that are blue hot and have
    formed only in the past few million years. The inner galaxy appears
    older, redder, and threaded with cool filamentary dust. A few bright
    stars appear well in the foreground, unrelated to UGC 1810, while
    several galaxies are visible well in the background. Arp 273 lies about
    300 million light years away toward the constellation of Andromeda.
    Quite likely, UGC 1810 will devour its galactic sidekick over the next
    billion years and settle into a classic spiral form.

    APOD in world languages: Arabic, Catalan, Chinese (Beijing), Chinese
    (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Farsi, French,
    German, Hebrew, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Montenegrin, Polish,
    Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish, Turkish, and Ukrainian
    Tomorrow's picture: spot on
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, October 19, 2020 00:35:49
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 19

    A Flight over Jupiter Near the Great Red Spot
    Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS; Video Processing & License:
    Kevin M. Gill; Music: Vangelis

    Explanation: Are you willing to wait to see the largest and oldest
    known storm system in the Solar System? In the featured video,
    Jupiter's Great Red Spot finally makes its appearance 2 minutes and 12
    seconds into the 5-minute video. Before it arrives, you may find it
    pleasing to enjoy the continually changing view of the seemingly serene
    clouds of Jupiter, possibly with your lights low and sound up. The 41
    frames that compose the video were captured in June as the robotic Juno
    spacecraft was making a close pass over our Solar System's largest
    planet. The time-lapse sequence actually occurred over four hours.
    Since arriving at Jupiter in 2016, Juno's numerous discoveries have
    included unexpectedly deep atmospheric jet streams, the most powerful
    auroras ever recorded, and water-bearing clouds bunched near Jupiter's
    equator.

    Follow: Live coverage of tomorrow's OSIRIS-REx attempted
    touchdown-and-go on asteroid Bennu
    Tomorrow's picture: great sky orbs
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, October 20, 2020 00:49:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 20

    Saturn and Jupiter over Italian Peaks
    Image Credit & Copyright: Giorgia Hofer

    Explanation: Saturn and Jupiter are getting closer. Every night that
    you go out and check for the next two months, these two bright planets
    will be even closer together on the sky. Finally, in mid-December, a
    Great Conjunction will occur -- when the two planets will appear only
    0.1 degrees apart -- just one fifth the angular diameter of the full
    Moon. And this isn't just any Great Conjunction -- Saturn (left) and
    Jupiter (right) haven't been this close since 1623, and won't be nearly
    this close again until 2080. This celestial event is quite easy to see
    -- already the two planets are easily visible toward the southwest just
    after sunset -- and already they are remarkably close. Pictured, the
    astrophotographer and partner eyed the planetary duo above the Tre Cime
    di Lavaredo (Three Peaks of Lavaredo) in the Italian Alps about two
    weeks ago.

    Follow: Live coverage of today's OSIRIS-REx attempted touchdown-and-go
    on asteroid Bennu
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, October 22, 2020 00:24:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 22

    Tagging Bennu
    Image Credit: OSIRIS-REx, University of Arizona, NASA, Goddard
    Scientific Visualization Studio

    Explanation: On October 20, after a careful approach to the
    boulder-strewn surface, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft's arm reached out and
    touched asteroid Bennu. Dubbed a Touch-And-Go (TAG) sampling event, the
    30 centimeter wide sampling head (TAGSAM) appears to crush some of the
    rocks in this snapshot. The close-up scene was recorded by the
    spacecraft's SamCam some 321 million kilometers from planet Earth, just
    after surface contact. One second later, the spacecraft fired nitrogen
    gas from a bottle intended to blow a substantial amount of Bennu's
    regolith into the sampling head, collecting the loose surface material.
    Data show the spacecraft spent approximately 5 more seconds in contact
    with Bennu's Nightingale sample site and then performed its back-away
    burn. Timelapse frames from SamCam reveal the aftermath.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, October 23, 2020 00:38:03
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 23

    Supernova in NGC 2525
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU) and the SH0ES team
    Acknowledgment: M. Zamani (ESA/Hubble)

    Explanation: Big, beautiful, barred spiral galaxy NGC 2525 lies 70
    million light-years from the Milky Way. It shines in Earth's night sky
    within the boundaries of the southern constellation Puppis. About
    60,000 light-years across, its spiral arms lined with dark dust clouds,
    massive blue stars, and pinkish starforming regions wind through this
    gorgeous Hubble Space Telescope snapshot. Spotted on the outskirts of
    NGC 2525 in January 2018, supernova SN 2018gv is the brightest star in
    the frame at the lower left. In time-lapse, a year long series of
    Hubble observations followed the stellar explosion, the nuclear
    detonation of a white dwarf star triggered by accreting material from a
    companion star, as it slowly faded from view. Identified as a Type Ia
    supernova, its brightness is considered a cosmic standard candle. Type
    Ia supernovae are used to measure distances to galaxies and determine
    the expansion rate of the Universe.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, October 24, 2020 00:12:17
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 24

    Globular Star Cluster 47 Tuc
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jose Mtanous

    Explanation: Globular star cluster 47 Tucanae is a jewel of the
    southern sky. Also known as NGC 104, it roams the halo of our Milky Way
    Galaxy along with some 200 other globular star clusters. The second
    brightest globular cluster (after Omega Centauri) as seen from planet
    Earth, it lies about 13,000 light-years away and can be spotted
    naked-eye close on the sky to the Small Magellanic Cloud in the
    constellation of the Toucan. The dense cluster is made up of hundreds
    of thousands of stars in a volume only about 120 light-years across.
    Red giant stars on the outskirts of the cluster are easy to pick out as
    yellowish stars in this sharp telescopic portrait. Tightly packed
    globular cluster 47 Tuc is also home to a star with the closest known
    orbit around a black hole.

    Tomorrow's picture: dark-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, October 25, 2020 00:25:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 25

    Dark Matter in a Simulated Universe
    Illustration Credit & Copyright: Tom Abel & Ralf Kaehler (KIPAC, SLAC),
    AMNH

    Explanation: Is our universe haunted? It might look that way on this
    dark matter map. The gravity of unseen dark matter is the leading
    explanation for why galaxies rotate so fast, why galaxies orbit
    clusters so fast, why gravitational lenses so strongly deflect light,
    and why visible matter is distributed as it is both in the local
    universe and on the cosmic microwave background. The featured image
    from the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium
    previous Space Show Dark Universe highlights one example of how
    pervasive dark matter might haunt our universe. In this frame from a
    detailed computer simulation, complex filaments of dark matter, shown
    in black, are strewn about the universe like spider webs, while the
    relatively rare clumps of familiar baryonic matter are colored orange.
    These simulations are good statistical matches to astronomical
    observations. In what is perhaps a scarier turn of events, dark matter
    -- although quite strange and in an unknown form -- is no longer
    thought to be the strangest source of gravity in the universe. That
    honor now falls to dark energy, a more uniform source of repulsive
    gravity that seems to now dominate the expansion of the entire
    universe.

    Tomorrow's picture: spooky space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


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    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, October 26, 2020 00:21:47
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 26

    Reflections of the Ghost Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Bogdan Jarzyna

    Explanation: Do any shapes seem to jump out at you from this
    interstellar field of stars and dust? The jeweled expanse, filled with
    faint, starlight-reflecting clouds, drifts through the night in the
    royal constellation of Cepheus. Far from your own neighborhood on
    planet Earth, these ghostly apparitions lurk along the plane of the
    Milky Way at the edge of the Cepheus Flare molecular cloud complex some
    1,200 light-years away. Over two light-years across and brighter than
    the other spooky chimeras, VdB 141 or Sh2-136 is also known as the
    Ghost Nebula, seen at toward the bottom of the featured image. Within
    the reflection nebula are the telltale signs of dense cores collapsing
    in the early stages of star formation.

    Tomorrow's picture: venusian volcano
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, October 27, 2020 00:27:34
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 27

    Venusian Volcano Imagined
    Illustration Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, Peter Rubin

    Explanation: What would an erupting volcano on Venus look like?
    Evidence of currently active volcanoes on Venus was announced earlier
    this year with the unexplained warmth of regions thought to contain
    only ancient volcanoes. Although large scale images of Venus have been
    taken with radar, thick sulfuric acid clouds would inhibit the taking
    of optical light vistas. Nevertheless, an artist's reconstruction of a
    Venusian volcano erupting is featured. Volcanoes could play an
    important role in a life cycle on Venus as they could push chemical
    foods into the cooler upper atmosphere where hungry microbes might
    float. Pictured, the plume from an erupting volcano billows upwards,
    while a vast lava field covers part of the hot and cracked surface of
    Earth's overheated twin. The possibility of airborne microbial
    Venusians is certainly exciting, but currently controversial.

    An APOD Described on TikTok: By astrokirsten
    Tomorrow's picture: big lobster
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- MBSE BBS v1.0.7.18 (GNU/Linux-x86_64)
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, October 28, 2020 00:10:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 28

    NGC 6357: The Lobster Nebula
    Image Credit & Copyright: Steven Mohr

    Explanation: Why is the Lobster Nebula forming some of the most massive
    stars known? No one is yet sure. Cataloged as NGC 6357, the Lobster
    Nebula houses the open star cluster Pismis 24 near its center -- a home
    to unusually bright and massive stars. The overall blue glow near the
    inner star forming region results from the emission of ionized hydrogen
    gas. The surrounding nebula, featured here, holds a complex tapestry of
    gas, dark dust, stars still forming, and newly born stars. The
    intricate patterns are caused by complex interactions between
    interstellar winds, radiation pressures, magnetic fields, and gravity.
    NGC 6357 spans about 400 light years and lies about 8,000 light years
    away toward the constellation of the Scorpion.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, October 30, 2020 00:45:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 30

    Fear and Dread: The Moons of Mars
    Composite Image Credit & Copyright: Dennis Simmons

    Explanation: On Halloween fear and dread will stalk your night skies,
    also known as Phobos and Deimos the moons of Mars. The 2020 opposition
    of Mars was on October 13, so the Red Planet will still rise shortly
    after sunset. Near Halloween's Full Moon on the sky, its strange
    yellowish glow will outshine other stars throughout the night. But the
    two tiny Martian moons are very faint and in close orbits, making them
    hard to spot, even with a small telescope. You can find them in this
    carefully annotated composite view though. The overexposed planet's
    glare is reduced and orbital paths for inner moon Phobos and outer moon
    Deimos are overlayed on digitally combined images captured on October
    6. The diminutive moons of Mars were discovered in August of 1877 by
    astronomer Asaph Hall at the US Naval Observatory using the Great
    Equatorial 26-inch Alvan Clark refractor.

    Tomorrow's picture: galaxy of horrors
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, October 31, 2020 00:22:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 October 31

    A Galaxy of Horrors
    Poster Illustration Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, The Galaxy of Horrors

    Explanation: Explore extreme and terrifying realms of the Universe
    tonight. If you dare to look, mysterious dark matter, a graveyard
    galaxy, zombie worlds, and gamma-ray bursts of doom are not all that
    awaits. Just follow the link and remember, it's all based on real
    science, even the scary parts. Have a safe and happy halloween!

    Tomorrow's picture: day of the trifid
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, November 02, 2020 00:21:52
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 2

    Half Sun with Prominence
    Image Credit & Copyright: Rainee Colacurcio

    Explanation: What's happening to the Sun? Clearly, the Sun's lower half
    is hidden behind a thick cloud. Averaging over the entire Earth, clouds
    block the Sun about 2/3rds of the time, although much less over many
    land locations. On the Sun's upper right is a prominence of
    magnetically levitating hot gas. The prominence might seem small but it
    could easily envelop our Earth and persist for over a month. The
    featured image is a combination of two exposures, one optimizing the
    cloud and prominence, and the other optimizing the Sun's texture. Both
    were taken about an hour apart with the same camera and from the same
    location in Lynnwood, Washington, USA. The shaggy texture derives from
    the Sun's chromosphere, an atmospheric layer that stands out in the
    specifically exposed color. The uniformity of the texture shows the
    surface to be relatively calm, indicative of a Sun just past the solar
    minimum in its 11-year cycle. In the years ahead, the Sun will progress
    toward a more active epoch where sunspots, prominences, and ultimately
    auroras on Earth will be more common: solar maximum.

    Tomorrow's picture: waves of gravity
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, November 04, 2020 01:14:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 4

    Fifty Gravitational Wave Events Illustrated
    Image Credit: LIGO Virgo Collaborations, Frank Elavsky, Aaron Geller,
    Northwestern U.

    Explanation: Over fifty gravitational wave events have now been
    detected. These events mark the distant, violent collisions of two
    black holes, a black hole and a neutron star, or two neutron stars.
    Most of the 50 events were detected in 2019 by the LIGO gravitational
    wave detectors in the USA and the VIRGO detector in Europe. In the
    featured illustration summarizing the masses of the first 50 events,
    blue dots indicate higher-mass black holes while orange dots denote
    lower-mass neutron stars. Astrophysicists are currently uncertain,
    though, about the nature of events marked in white involving masses
    that appear to be in the middle -- between two and five solar masses.
    The night sky in optical light is dominated by nearby and bright
    planets and stars that have been known since the dawn of humanity. In
    contrast, the sky in gravitational waves is dominated by distant and
    dark black holes that have only been known about for less than five
    years. This contrast is enlightening -- understanding the gravitational
    wave sky is already reshaping humanity's knowledge not only of star
    birth and death across the universe, but properties of the universe
    itself.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, November 05, 2020 00:28:44
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 5

    North of Orion's Belt
    Image Credit & Copyright: Terry Hancock (Grand Mesa Observatory)

    Explanation: Bright stars, interstellar clouds of dust and glowing
    nebulae fill this cosmic scene, a skyscape just north of Orion's belt.
    Close to the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, the wide field view spans
    just under 5 degrees or about 10 full moons on the sky. Striking bluish
    M78, a reflection nebula, is at the lower right. M78's tint is due to
    dust preferentially reflecting the blue light of hot, young stars. In
    colorful contrast, the red swath of glowing hydrogen gas streaming
    through the center is part of the region's faint but extensive emission
    nebula known as Barnard's Loop. At upper left, a dark dust cloud forms
    a prominent silhouette cataloged as LDN 1622. While M78 and the complex
    Barnard's Loop are some 1,500 light-years away, LDN 1622 is likely to
    be much closer, only about 500 light-years distant from our fair planet
    Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, November 06, 2020 00:09:28
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 6

    Moon over ISS
    Image Credit & Copyright: Derek Demeter (Emil Buehler Planetarium)

    Explanation: Completing one orbit of our fair planet in 90 minutes the
    International Space Station can easily be spotted by eye as a very
    bright star moving through the night sky. Have you seen it? The next
    time you do, you will have recognized the location of over 20 years of
    continuous human presence in space. In fact, the Expedition 1 crew to
    the ISS docked with the orbital outpost some 400 kilometers above the
    Earth on November 2, 2000. No telescope is required to spot the ISS
    flashing through the night. But this telescopic field of view does
    reveal remarkable details of the space station captured as it transited
    the waning gibbous moon on November 3, just one day after the space age
    milestone. The well-timed telescopic snapshot also contains the
    location of another inspirational human achievement. About 400,000
    kilometers away, the Apollo 11 landing site on the dark, smooth lunar
    Sea of Tranquility is to the right of the ISS silhouette.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, November 07, 2020 01:08:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 7

    The Hercules Cluster of Galaxies
    Image Credit & Copyright: Howard Trottier

    Explanation: These are galaxies of the Hercules Cluster, an archipelago
    of island universes a mere 500 million light-years away. Also known as
    Abell 2151, this cluster is loaded with gas and dust rich, star-forming
    spiral galaxies but has relatively few elliptical galaxies, which lack
    gas and dust and the associated newborn stars. The colors in this deep
    composite image clearly show the star forming galaxies with a blue tint
    and galaxies with older stellar populations with a yellowish cast. The
    sharp picture spans about 1/2 degree across the cluster center,
    corresponding to over 4 million light-years at the cluster's estimated
    distance. Diffraction spikes around brighter foreground stars in our
    own Milky Way galaxy are produced by the imaging telescope's mirror
    support vanes. In the cosmic vista many galaxies seem to be colliding
    or merging while others seem distorted - clear evidence that cluster
    galaxies commonly interact. In fact, the Hercules Cluster itself may be
    seen as the result of ongoing mergers of smaller galaxy clusters and is
    thought to be similar to young galaxy clusters in the much more
    distant, early Universe.

    Tomorrow's picture: a dark moon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, November 08, 2020 00:21:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 8

    Martian Moon Phobos from Mars Express
    Image Credit: G. Neukum (FU Berlin) et al., Mars Express, DLR, ESA;
    Acknowledgement: Peter Masek

    Explanation: Why is Phobos so dark? Phobos, the largest and innermost
    of two Martian moons, is the darkest moon in the entire Solar System.
    Its unusual orbit and color indicate that it may be a captured asteroid
    composed of a mixture of ice and dark rock. The featured picture of
    Phobos near the limb of Mars was captured in 2010 by the robot
    spacecraft Mars Express currently orbiting Mars. Phobos is a heavily
    cratered and barren moon, with its largest crater located on the far
    side. From images like this, Phobos has been determined to be covered
    by perhaps a meter of loose dust. Phobos orbits so close to Mars that
    from some places it would appear to rise and set twice a day, but from
    other places it would not be visible at all. Phobos' orbit around Mars
    is continually decaying -- it will likely break up with pieces crashing
    to the Martian surface in about 50 million years.

    Tomorrow's picture: in green company
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, November 09, 2020 00:47:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 9

    In Green Company: Aurora over Norway
    Image Credit & Copyright: Max Rive

    Explanation: Raise your arms if you see an aurora. With those
    instructions, two nights went by with, well, clouds -- mostly. On the
    third night of returning to same peaks, though, the sky not only
    cleared up but lit up with a spectacular auroral display. Arms went
    high in the air, patience and experience paid off, and the creative
    featured image was captured as a composite from three separate
    exposures. The setting is a summit of the Austnesfjorden fjord close to
    the town of Svolvear on the Lofoten islands in northern Norway. The
    time was early 2014. Although our Sun has just passed the solar minimum
    of its 11-year cycle, surface activity should pick up over the next few
    years with the promise of triggering more spectacular auroras on Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: a soul without stars
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, November 10, 2020 01:13:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 10

    The Central Soul Nebula Without Stars
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jason Guenzel

    Explanation: This cosmic close-up looks deep inside the Soul Nebula.
    The dark and brooding dust clouds near the top, outlined by bright
    ridges of glowing gas, are cataloged as IC 1871. About 25 light-years
    across, the telescopic field of view spans only a small part of the
    much larger Heart and Soul nebulae. At an estimated distance of 6,500
    light-years the star-forming complex lies within the Perseus spiral arm
    of our Milky Way Galaxy, seen in planet Earth's skies toward the
    constellation Cassiopeia. An example of triggered star formation, the
    dense star-forming clouds in the Soul Nebula are themselves sculpted by
    the intense winds and radiation of the region's massive young stars. In
    the featured image, stars have been digitally removed to highlight the
    commotion in the gas and dust.

    Tomorrow's picture: a moon of a different color
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, November 11, 2020 01:08:32
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 11

    Colors of the Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Marcella Giulia Pace

    Explanation: What color is the Moon? It depends on the night. Outside
    of the Earth's atmosphere, the dark Moon, which shines by reflected
    sunlight, appears a magnificently brown-tinged gray. Viewed from inside
    the Earth's atmosphere, though, the moon can appear quite different.
    The featured image highlights a collection of apparent colors of the
    full moon documented by one astrophotographer over 10 years from
    different locations across Italy. A red or yellow colored moon usually
    indicates a moon seen near the horizon. There, some of the blue light
    has been scattered away by a long path through the Earth's atmosphere,
    sometimes laden with fine dust. A blue-colored moon is more rare and
    can indicate a moon seen through an atmosphere carrying larger dust
    particles. What created the purple moon is unclear -- it may be a
    combination of several effects. The last image captures the total lunar
    eclipse of 2018 July -- where the moon, in Earth's shadow, appeared a
    faint red -- due to light refracted through air around the Earth. The
    next full moon will occur at the end of this month (moon-th) and is
    known in some cultures as the Beaver Moon.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, November 12, 2020 00:26:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 12

    Comet ATLAS and Orion's Belt
    Image Credit & Copyright: Charles Bracken

    Explanation: With its closest approach to planet Earth scheduled for
    November 14, this Comet ATLAS (C/2020 M3) was discovered just this
    summer, another comet found by the NASA funded Asteroid
    Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System. It won't get as bright as Comet
    NEOWISE but it can still be spotted using binoculars, as it currently
    sweeps through the familiar constellation of Orion. This telephoto
    field from November 8, blends exposures registered on the comet with
    exposures registered on Orion's stars. It creates an effectively deep
    skyview that shows colors and details you can't quite see though, even
    in binoculars. The comet's telltale greenish coma is toward the upper
    left, above Orion's three belt stars lined-up across the frame below
    center. You'll also probably spot the Orion Nebula, and famous
    Horsehead Nebula in the stunning field of view. Of course one of
    Orion's belt stars is nearly 2,000 light-years away. On November 14,
    this comet ATLAS will fly a mere 2.9 light-minutes from Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, November 13, 2020 00:08:00
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 13

    The Tarantula Zone
    Image Credit & Copyright: Ignacio Diaz Bobillo

    Explanation: The Tarantula Nebula, also known as 30 Doradus, is more
    than a thousand light-years in diameter, a giant star forming region
    within nearby satellite galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud. About 180
    thousand light-years away, it's the largest, most violent star forming
    region known in the whole Local Group of galaxies. The cosmic arachnid
    sprawls across the top of this spectacular view, composed with
    narrowband filter data centered on emission from ionized hydrogen and
    oxygen atoms. Within the Tarantula (NGC 2070), intense radiation,
    stellar winds and supernova shocks from the central young cluster of
    massive stars, cataloged as R136, energize the nebular glow and shape
    the spidery filaments. Around the Tarantula are other star forming
    regions with young star clusters, filaments, and blown-out
    bubble-shaped clouds. In fact, the frame includes the site of the
    closest supernova in modern times, SN 1987A, right of center. The rich
    field of view spans about 2 degrees or 4 full moons, in the southern
    constellation Dorado. But were the Tarantula Nebula closer, say 1,500
    light-years distant like the local star forming Orion Nebula, it would
    take up half the sky.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, November 14, 2020 00:55:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 14

    Venus, Mercury, and the Waning Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Kevin Sargozza

    Explanation: Yesterday, early morning risers around planet Earth were
    treated to a waning Moon low in the east as the sky grew bright before
    dawn. From the Island of Ortigia, Syracuse, Sicily, Italy this simple
    snapshot found the slender sunlit crescent just before sunrise. Never
    wandering far from the Sun in Earth's sky, inner planets Venus and
    Mercury shared the calm seaside view. Also in the frame, right of the
    line-up of Luna and planets, is bright star Spica, alpha star of the
    constellation Virgo and one of the 20 brightest stars in Earth's night.
    Tomorrow the Moon will be New. The dark lunar disk means mostly dark
    nights for planet Earth in the coming week and a good chance to watch
    the annual Leonid Meteor Shower.

    Today watch: Commercial Crew Launch to ISS
    Tomorrow's picture: edge-on
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, November 15, 2020 00:26:16
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 15

    Edge-On Galaxy NGC 5866
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA);
    Acknowledgment: W. Keel (U. Alabama)

    Explanation: Why is this galaxy so thin? Many disk galaxies are just as
    thin as NGC 5866, pictured here, but are not seen edge-on from our
    vantage point. One galaxy that is situated edge-on is our own Milky Way
    Galaxy. Classified as a lenticular galaxy, NGC 5866 has numerous and
    complex dust lanes appearing dark and red, while many of the bright
    stars in the disk give it a more blue underlying hue. The blue disk of
    young stars can be seen extending past the dust in the extremely thin
    galactic plane, while the bulge in the disk center appears tinged more
    orange from the older and redder stars that likely exist there.
    Although similar in mass to our Milky Way Galaxy, light takes about
    60,000 years to cross NGC 5866, about 30 percent less than light takes
    to cross our own Galaxy. In general, many disk galaxies are very thin
    because the gas that formed them collided with itself as it rotated
    about the gravitational center. Galaxy NGC 5866 lies about 44 million
    light years distant toward the constellation of the Dragon (Draco).

    Almost Hyperspace: Random APOD Generator
    Tomorrow's picture: grecian skyscape
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, November 18, 2020 01:38:12
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 18

    A Double Star Cluster in Perseus
    Image Credit & Copyright: Greg Polanski

    Explanation: Most star clusters are singularly impressive. Open
    clusters NGC 869 and NGC 884, however, could be considered doubly
    impressive. Also known as "h and chi Persei", this unusual double
    cluster, shown above, is bright enough to be seen from a dark location
    without even binoculars. Although their discovery surely predates
    recorded history, the Greek astronomer Hipparchus notably cataloged the
    double cluster. The clusters are over 7,000 light years distant toward
    the constellation of Perseus, but are separated by only hundreds of
    light years. In addition to being physically close together, the
    clusters' ages based on their individual stars are similar - evidence
    that both clusters were likely a product of the same star-forming
    region.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, November 19, 2020 01:33:42
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 19

    Crew-1 Mission Launch Streak
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jen Scott

    Explanation: Leaving planet Earth for a moment, a SpaceX Falcon 9
    rocket arced into the early evening sky last Sunday at 7:27 pm EST.
    This 3 minute 20 second exposure traces the launch streak over Kennedy
    Space Center's Launch Complex 39A. The rocket carried four astronauts
    en route to the International Space Station on the first flight of a
    NASA-certified commercial human spacecraft system. Dubbed Resilience,
    the astronauts' Crew Dragon spacecraft successfully docked with the
    orbital outpost one day later, on Monday, November 16. At the
    conclusion of their six-month stay on the ISS, the Crew-1 astronauts
    will use their spacecraft return to Earth. Of course about 9 minutes
    after launch the Falcon 9 rocket's first stage returned to Earth,
    landing in the Atlantic Ocean on autonomous spaceport drone ship Just
    Read The Instructions.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, November 20, 2020 04:19:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 20

    Global Map: Mars at Opposition
    Image Credit & Copyright: F. Colas / J.L. Dauvergne / G. Dovillaire /
    T. Legault /
    G. Blanchard / B. Gaillard / D. Baratoux / A, Klotz / S2P / IMCCE / OMP
    / Imagine Optic

    Explanation: This may be the best global Mars map made with a telescope
    based on planet Earth. The image data were captured by a team of
    observers over six long nights at the Pic du Midi mountaintop
    observatory between October 8 and November 1, when the fourth rock from
    the Sun had not wandered far from its 2020 opposition and its biggest
    and brightest appearance in Earth's night sky. The large telescope
    used, 1 meter in diameter with a 17 meter focal length, was also used
    in support of NASA's Apollo lunar landing missions. After about 30
    hours of processing, the data were combined to produced this remarkably
    sharp projected view of the martian surface extending to about 45
    degrees northern latitude. The image data have also been mapped onto a
    rotating sphere and rotating stereo, views. Fans of Mars can easily
    pick out their favorite markings on the Red Planet by eyeing a labeled
    version of this global map of Mars.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, November 21, 2020 01:39:20
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 21

    Mars and Meteor over Jade Dragon Snow Mountain
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jeff Dai (TWAN)

    Explanation: A brilliant yellowish celestial beacon, Mars still dazzles
    in the night. Peering between clouds the wandering planet was briefly
    joined by the flash of a meteor in this moonless dark sky on November
    18. The single exposure was taken as the Earth swept up dust from
    periodic comet Tempel-Tuttle during the annual Leonid Meteor Shower.
    The view of a rugged western horizon looks along the Yulong mountain
    range in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Yulong (Jade Dragon) Snow
    Mountain lies below the clouds and beyond the end of the meteor streak.

    Tomorrow's picture: dark marking on the sky
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, November 22, 2020 00:57:36
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 22

    Dark Molecular Cloud Barnard 68
    Image Credit: FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT Antu, ESO

    Explanation: Where did all the stars go? What used to be considered a
    hole in the sky is now known to astronomers as a dark molecular cloud.
    Here, a high concentration of dust and molecular gas absorb practically
    all the visible light emitted from background stars. The eerily dark
    surroundings help make the interiors of molecular clouds some of the
    coldest and most isolated places in the universe. One of the most
    notable of these dark absorption nebulae is a cloud toward the
    constellation Ophiuchus known as Barnard 68, pictured here. That no
    stars are visible in the center indicates that Barnard 68 is relatively
    nearby, with measurements placing it about 500 light-years away and
    half a light-year across. It is not known exactly how molecular clouds
    like Barnard 68 form, but it is known that these clouds are themselves
    likely places for new stars to form. In fact, Barnard 68 itself has
    been found likely to collapse and form a new star system. It is
    possible to look right through the cloud in infrared light.

    Tomorrow's picture: from jupiter
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, November 24, 2020 05:37:54
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 24

    The Helix Nebula from CFHT
    Image Credit & Copyright: CFHT, Coelum, MegaCam, J.-C. Cuillandre
    (CFHT) & G. A. Anselmi (Coelum)

    Explanation: Will our Sun look like this one day? The Helix Nebula is
    one of brightest and closest examples of a planetary nebula, a gas
    cloud created at the end of the life of a Sun-like star. The outer
    gasses of the star expelled into space appear from our vantage point as
    if we are looking down a helix. The remnant central stellar core,
    destined to become a white dwarf star, glows in light so energetic it
    causes the previously expelled gas to fluoresce. The Helix Nebula,
    given a technical designation of NGC 7293, lies about 700 light-years
    away towards the constellation of the Water Bearer (Aquarius) and spans
    about 2.5 light-years. The featured picture was taken with the
    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) located atop a dormant volcano in
    Hawaii, USA. A close-up of the inner edge of the Helix Nebula shows
    complex gas knots of unknown origin.

    Tomorrow's picture: andromedian horizon
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, November 25, 2020 00:23:22
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 25

    Andromeda over Patagonia
    Image Credit & Copyright: Gerardo Ferrarino

    Explanation: How far can you see? The Andromeda Galaxy at 2.5 million
    light years away is the most distant object easily seen with your
    unaided eye. Most other apparent denizens of the night sky -- stars,
    clusters, and nebulae -- typically range from a few hundred to a few
    thousand light-years away and lie well within our own Milky Way Galaxy.
    Given its distance, light from Andromeda is likely also the oldest
    light that you can see. Also known as M31, the Andromeda Galaxy
    dominates the center of the featured zoomed image, taken from the dunes
    of Baha Creek, Patagonia, in southern Argentina. The image is a
    combination of 45 background images with one foreground image -- all
    taken with the same camera and from the same location within 90
    minutes. M110, a satellite galaxy of Andromenda is visible just below
    and to the left of M31's core. As cool as it may be to see this
    neighboring galaxy to our Milky Way with your own eyes, long duration
    camera exposures can pick up many faint and breathtaking details.
    Recent data indicates that our Milky Way Galaxy will collide and
    combine with the similarly-sized Andromeda galaxy in a few billion
    years.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.


    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, November 26, 2020 03:31:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 26

    The Great Turkey Nebula
    Imagination Credit & Copyright: Eric Coles

    Explanation: Surprisingly reminiscent of The Great Nebula in Orion, The
    Great Turkey Nebula spans this creative field of view. Of course if it
    were the Orion Nebula it would be our closest large stellar nursery,
    found at the edge of a large molecular cloud a mere 1,500 light-years
    away. Also known as M42, the Orion Nebula is visible to the eye as the
    middle "star" in the sword of Orion the Hunter, a constellation now
    rising in planet Earth's evening skies. Stellar winds from clusters of
    newborn stars scattered throughout the Orion Nebula sculpt its ridges
    and cavities seen in familiar in telescopic images. Similar in size to
    the Orion Nebula, this Great Turkey Nebula was imagined to be about 13
    light-years across. Stay safe and well.

    Tomorrow's picture: painted with a starry brush
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, November 27, 2020 01:27:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 27

    Chang'e 5 Mission Launch
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jeff Dai (TWAN)

    Explanation: This Long March-5 rocket blasted off from the Wenchang
    launch site in southernmost Hainan province on Tuesday November 24, at
    4:30 am Beijing Time, carrying China's Chang'e-5 mission to the Moon.
    The lunar landing mission is named for the ancient Chinese goddess of
    the moon. Its goal is to collect about 2 kilograms (4.4 pounds) of
    lunar material from the surface and return it to planet Earth, the
    first robotic sample return mission to the Moon since the Soviet
    Union's Luna 24 mission in 1976. The complex Chang'e-5 mission landing
    target is in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms). The smooth
    volcanic plain was also visited by the Apollo 12 mission in 1969.
    Chang'e-5's lander is solar-powered and scheduled to operate on the
    lunar surface during its location's lunar daylight, which will last
    about two Earth weeks, beginning around November 27. A capsule with the
    lunar sample on board would return to Earth in mid-December.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, November 28, 2020 04:32:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 November 28

    NGC 6822: Barnard's Galaxy
    Image Credit & Copyright: Data - Martin Pugh, Processing - Mark Hanson

    Explanation: Grand spiral galaxies often seem to get all the glory,
    flaunting their young, bright, blue star clusters in beautiful,
    symmetric spiral arms. But small galaxies form stars too, like nearby
    NGC 6822, also known as Barnard's Galaxy. Beyond the rich starfields in
    the constellation Sagittarius, NGC 6822 is a mere 1.5 million
    light-years away, a member of our Local Group of galaxies. A dwarf
    irregular galaxy similar to the Small Magellanic Cloud, NGC 6822 is
    about 7,000 light-years across. Brighter foreground stars in our Milky
    Way have a spiky appearance. Behind them, Barnard's Galaxy is seen to
    be filled with young blue stars and mottled with the telltale pinkish
    hydrogen glow of star forming regions in this deep color composite
    image.

    Tomorrow's picture: falling off a cliff
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

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  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Tuesday, December 01, 2020 00:25:24
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 1

    NGC 346: Star Forming Cluster in the SMC
    Image Credit & License: NASA, ESA, Hubble; Processing: Judy Schmidt

    Explanation: Are stars still forming in the Milky Way's satellite
    galaxies? Found among the Small Magellanic Cloud's (SMC's) clusters and
    nebulas, NGC 346 is a star forming region about 200 light-years across,
    pictured here in the center of a Hubble Space Telescope image. A
    satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is
    a wonder of the southern sky, a mere 210,000 light-years distant in the
    constellation of the Toucan (Tucana). Exploring NGC 346, astronomers
    have identified a population of embryonic stars strung along the dark,
    intersecting dust lanes visible here on the right. Still collapsing
    within their natal clouds, the stellar infants' light is reddened by
    the intervening dust. Toward the top of the frame is another star
    cluster with intrinsically older and redder stars. A small, irregular
    galaxy, the SMC itself represents a type of galaxy more common in the
    early Universe. These small galaxies, though, are thought to be
    building blocks for the larger galaxies present today.

    All 30: 2020 November APODs voiced by AI
    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
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    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Wednesday, December 02, 2020 00:25:14
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 2

    Eye of Moon
    Image Credit & Copyright: Zachery Cooley

    Explanation: Who's watching who? The featured image of the Moon through
    a gap in a wall of rock may appear like a giant eye looking back at
    you. Although, in late October, it took only a single exposure to
    capture this visual double, it also took a lot of planning. The
    photographic goal was achieved by precise timing -- needed for a nearly
    full moon to appear through the eye-shaped arch, by precise locating --
    needed for the angular size of the Moon to fit iconically inside the
    rock arch, and by good luck -- needed for a clear sky and for the
    entire scheme to work. The seemingly coincidental juxtaposition was
    actually engineered with the help of three smartphone apps. The
    pictured sandstone arch, carved by erosion, is millions of years old
    and just one of thousands of natural rock arches that have been found
    in Arches National Park near Moab, Utah, USA. Contrastingly, the
    pictured Moon can be found up in the sky from just about anywhere on
    Earth, about half the time.

    Tomorrow's picture: open space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Thursday, December 03, 2020 09:38:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 3

    The Antennae Galaxies in Collision
    Image Credit: ESA/Hubble NASA

    Explanation: Sixty million light-years away toward the southerly
    constellation Corvus, these two large galaxies are colliding. The
    cosmic train wreck captured in stunning detail in this Hubble Space
    Telescope snapshot takes hundreds of millions of years to play out.
    Cataloged as NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, the galaxies' individual stars
    don't often collide though. Their large clouds of molecular gas and
    dust do, triggering furious episodes of star formation near the center
    of the wreckage. New star clusters and interstellar matter are jumbled
    and flung far from the scene of the accident by gravitational forces.
    This Hubble close-up frame is about 50,000 light-years across at the
    estimated distance of the colliding galaxies. In wider-field views
    their suggestive visual appearance, with extended structures arcing for
    hundreds of thousands of light-years, gives the galaxy pair its popular
    name, The Antennae Galaxies.

    Tomorrow's picture: pixels in space
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Friday, December 04, 2020 01:14:18
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 4

    Curly Spiral Galaxy M63
    Image Credit & Copyright: Fabian Neyer, Rainer Spani
    Collaboration Credit: I.D. Karachentsev, F. Neyer, R. Spani, T. Zilch

    Explanation: A bright spiral galaxy of the northern sky, Messier 63 is
    nearby, about 30 million light-years distant toward the loyal
    constellation Canes Venatici. Also cataloged as NGC 5055, the majestic
    island universe is nearly 100,000 light-years across, about the size of
    our own Milky Way. Its bright core and majestic spiral arms lend the
    galaxy its popular name, The Sunflower Galaxy, while this exceptionally
    deep exposure also follows faint, arcing star streams far into the
    galaxy's halo. Extending nearly 180,000 light-years from the galactic
    center the star streams are likely remnants of tidally disrupted
    satellites of M63. Other satellite galaxies of M63 can be spotted in
    this remarkable wide-field image, made with a small telescope,
    including five newly identified faint dwarf galaxies, which could
    contribute to M63's star streams in the next few billion years.

    Tomorrow's picture: light-weekend
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Saturday, December 05, 2020 01:12:40
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 5

    Mons Rumker in the Ocean of Storms
    Image Credit & Copyright: Jean-Yves Letellier

    Explanation: Mons Rumker, a 70 kilometer wide complex of volcanic
    domes, rises some 1100 meters above the vast, smooth lunar mare known
    as Oceanus Procellarum, the Ocean of Storms. Daylight came to the area
    late last month. The lunar terminator, the shadow line between night
    and day, runs diagonally across the left side in this telescopic
    close-up of a waxing gibbous Moon from November 27. China's Chang'e-5
    mission landing site is also in the frame. The probe's lander-ascender
    combination touch down on the lunar surface within a region right of
    center and north of Mons Rumker's domes on December 1. On December 3
    the ascender left the Ocean of Storms carrying 2 kilograms of lunar
    material for return to planet Earth.

    Tomorrow's picture: close-up of a stellar nursery
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Sunday, December 06, 2020 00:05:30
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 6

    M16: Pillars of Star Creation
    Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Space Telescope, J. Hester, P. Scowen
    (ASU)

    Explanation: These dark pillars may look destructive, but they are
    creating stars. This pillar-capturing image of the inside of the Eagle
    Nebula, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in 1995, shows
    evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) emerging from pillars of molecular
    hydrogen gas and dust. The giant pillars are light years in length and
    are so dense that interior gas contracts gravitationally to form stars.
    At each pillars' end, the intense radiation of bright young stars
    causes low density material to boil away, leaving stellar nurseries of
    dense EGGs exposed. The Eagle Nebula, associated with the open star
    cluster M16, lies about 7000 light years away. The pillars of creation
    have been imaged more recently in infrared light by Hubble, NASA's
    Spitzer Space Telescope, and ESA's Herschel Space Observatory --
    showing new detail.

    Be Honest: Have you seen this image before?
    Tomorrow's picture: mountain bubbles
    __________________________________________________________________

    Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP)
    NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply.
    NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
    A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC
    & Michigan Tech. U.

    --- hpt/lnx 1.9.0
    * Origin: The Rusty MailBox - Penticton, BC Canada (1:153/757)
  • From Alan Ianson@1:153/757 to All on Monday, December 07, 2020 00:18:38
    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our
    fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation
    written by a professional astronomer.

    2020 December 7